Thursday, August 20, 2015

Holidays and Observances for August 20 2015

Lemonade Day

Lemonade Day is celebrated each year on August 20. In 2007, Prepared 4 Life started a community-wide educational initiative called Lemonade Day that has now become the organization’s number one outreach and educational priority.

Lemonade Day is a free, annual community-wide event dedicated to teaching children how to start, own and operate their own business through the simple and time-honored act of running a lemonade stand.  It provides an opportunity for families, businesses, faith-based community organizations and schools to come together for a common purpose – to train the next generation of entrepreneurs through a free, fun, engaging and experiential activity.

Lemonade Day, created by Prepared 4 Life, a Texas 501C3 organization, is a fun and experiential learning program where communities across the nation unite to teach youth how to start, own and operate their own business through a lemonade stand.   There are two distinct components of Lemonade Day.  First, there is a month-long learning experience through which a child and a caring adult exercise a step-by-step process of starting a business. This month-long process has proven to have a dramatic impact on a child’s understanding of how to be an entrepreneur in any industry. The second component is the actual implementation of the business, which takes place on Lemonade Day, held annually on the first Sunday in May. Literally, thousands of children open their stand for business with support from their community. In the six years since Lemonade Day’s inception, the program has grown in Houston from 2,700 to 54,000 youth participating and has attracted attention from city leaders across the nation.  In 2011, over 65,000 kids in 30 other U.S. cities also experienced Lemonade Day.

The foremost objective of Lemonade Day is to empower youth to take ownership of their lives and become productive members of society – the business leaders, social advocates, volunteers, and forward-thinking citizens of tomorrow.

Each child that registers for Lemonade Day receives a backpack with an Entrepreneur Workbook and Caring Adult Guide that teaches them the 14 lessons of Lemonade Day including how to set goals, develop a business plan, secure an investor, create a product, make a profit, and give back to the community. These aspiring entrepreneurs and their mentor are guided step by step to the keys for success. They learn that if you set a goal, make a plan, and work that plan, you can achieve your dreams. These lessons culminate on one day where youth all across the city open for business. The best part is that after covering their expenses and paying back their investor, children are encouraged to open a youth savings account and “spend a little, save a little and share a little,” by donating a portion of their profits to a local charity of their choice.

“It is important that we teach future generations the importance of responsible business practices and instill the entrepreneurial spirit at a young age – an age that allows them to have hope and vision to excel in the future,” says founder, Michael Holthouse, “Our goal is to reach kids as a critical stage in their lives – that time when they are at a crossroads between a very good or bad path.”

Lemonade Day teaches youth how to start, own and operate their own business – using a lemonade stand. Through this enterprise, children will learn the entrepreneurial skills necessary to successful in the future and become contributing members of their communities. Children learn the basic principles of business in a hands-on, active way.

National ‘ Bacon Lovers ‘ Day

There are two types of people in the world: Those who love bacon, and those who lie about it.

August 20 is National Bacon Lover’s Day, giving us a chance to celebrate our love of this wonder food. (Incidentally, International Bacon Day will be September 5 - clearly this food is so awesome it needs multiple days honoring it.)

Bacon is one of the most prolific foods in the world. Not only does it appear seamlessly in breakfast, lunch, and dinner, but also it rocks out in side dishes, from salad toppings to innovative desserts. And its appeal goes beyond the edible world. You can purchase bacon band-aids, bacon air fresheners, bacon toothpaste, and bacon perfume. It’s global permeation is second only to citrus fruits, such as oranges and lemons, and only because we haven’t developed bacon-scented dishwasher soap and disinfectant sprays. Yet.

Some people grow weary of the way that bacon has woven itself into every aspect of our culture (much in the way that bacon can be woven into a mat to create such dishes as the Bacon Explosion.) They feel that bacon suffers from overexposure. What they don’t realize is that bacon is a classic, in the same way that The Beatles are a classic. Can you honestly tell me that the world has heard enough of The Beatles?

So on August 20, today, National Bacon Lovers Day, celebrate your love of the finest pork product ever produced. Start a national discussion. Do you like your bacon soggy, or extra crispy? Do you prefer it savory and lean or full of delicious fat? Do you like it with maple syrup? If you find yourself stumped by any of these questions, fear not.

The answer is always “Bacon.”

National Chocolate Pecan Pie Day

National Pecan Pie Day is celebrated each year on July 12 where as if you add some chocolate to this delicious dessert,  you can annually celebrate National Chocolate Pecan Pie Day on August 20.

Pecan pie is a pie made primarily with corn syrup and pecan nuts. Variations may include white or brown sugar, sugar syrup, molasses, maple syrup, or honey. It is popularly served at holiday meals and is also considered a specialty of Southern U.S. cuisine. Most pecan pie recipes include salt and vanilla as flavorings. Chocolate and bourbon whiskey are other popular additions to the recipe. Pecan pie is often served with whipped cream or vanilla ice cream.

Claims have been made of the dish existing in the early 1800's in Alabama, but this does not appear to be backed up by recipes or literature. Attempts to trace the dish's origin have not found any recipes dated earlier than 1886, and well-known cookbooks such as Fannie Farmer and The Joy of Cooking did not include this dessert before 1940. The earliest recorded recipes produce a boiled custard with pecans added, which is then baked in a pie crust.

Some have stated that the French invented pecan pie soon after settling in New Orleans, after being introduced to the pecan nut by Native Americans. Pecan pie may be a variant of chess pie, which is made with a similar butter-sugar-egg custard.

The makers of Karo syrup significantly contributed to popularizing the dish and many of the recipes for variants (caramel, cinnamon, Irish creme, peanut butter, etc.) of the classic pie. The company has claimed that the dish was a 1930s "discovery" of a "new use for corn syrup" by a corporate sales executive's wife.

National Radio Day

National Radio Day is observed on August 20th every year to celebrate radio. National Radio Day is celebrated as a wonderful invention and means of communication. The radio was invented long back in 1800s. The final radio instrument was the result and efforts of a number of inventors role played, in creating this important medium.

The radio has been the first device to allow for mass communication. It has enabled information to be transferred far and wide, not only nationally wide but internationally as well. The development of the radio began in 1893 with Nikolai Tesla’s demonstration of wireless radio communication in St. Louis, Missouri. His work laid the foundation for those later scientists who worked to perfect the radio we now use. The man most associated with the advent of the radio is Guglielmo Marconi, who in 1986 was awarded the official patent for the radio by the British Government.

The early uses of the radio were mainly for maintaining contact between ships out a sea. However, this initial radio was unable to transmit speech, and instead sent Morse code messages back and forth between ships and stations on the land. During time of distress, a sinking ship would use a radio messaged nearby vessels and stations on the land to ask for aid. The radio saw a surge of use during the First World War. Both sides used the radio to relay messages to troops and top officials as well as people not on the battle front. At the end of the war, President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points was sent to Germany via use of the radio. After the war’s end, with the growth of radio receivers, broadcasting began in Europe and The United States.

Europe’s most famous broadcasting station, the British Broadcasting Company or BBC, began following in 1922. In fact, Marconi was one of the founding members along with other prominent leaders in the field of wireless manufacturers. Broadcasts began locally in London, but by 1925 it has spread to most of the United Kingdom. The station aired plays, classical music and variety programs. However, the newspaper industry maintained a strong hold over the new. In 1926 this all changed due to a newspaper strike in England. With no news being published it fell on the BBC to supply the information for the public. In 1927 the BBC became the British Broadcasting Corporation when it was granted it a Royal Charter. When the Second World War began all the television stations shut down and it fell on the shoulders of the radio to cover the war.

Following the war radio saw its greatest advancements and a turn towards its more modern form. The devastation of Britain made its citizens look for an outlet in radio entertainment. People enjoyed listening to the music, plays and discussion that the BBC played. During the 1960s with the expansion of radio to FM more programs were played and local BBC stations opened up across England. Radio in Europe continued to expand and in the 1990s new radio stations, like Radio 1, 4 and 5 began broadcasting with genres like sports and comedy appealing to new audiences. As the BBC entered into the new millennium its popularity continued to grow. Its broadcasts of “The Century Speaks”, an oral history of the 20th century and a reading of “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” helped to gain more listeners. In 2002 the BBC expanded to the digital market and saw its greatest expansion as new stations like 1Xtra, 5 Live, Sports Extra, 6 Music and BBC 7 were launched and World Service were made available to domestic listeners. The history of radio broadcasting in the United States followed a similar path.

Radio broadcasting in the United States started with the Westinghouse Company. The company asked Frank Conrad, one of their engineers, to start regularly broadcasting of music, while they would sell radios to pay for the service. Westinghouse applied for a commercial radio license in 1920, and started their station KDKA, the first officially government licensed radio station. The station’s first broadcast was the election returns of the Harding-Cox presidential race. Westinghouse also took out ads in the newspaper advertising radios for sale to the public. Soon, thousand of radio stations emerged that played a wide variety of broadcasts and reached people across the country that had bought or built their own receivers. The home building of receivers created a problem in the market, since people could simply build their own radios rather than going out to buy them and the government was forced to step in. To curb this a government-sanctioned agreement created the Radio Corporation Agreements, RCA, was formed to manage the patents for the technology of the receiver and transmitter. Companies like General Electric and Westinghouse were allowed to make receivers while Western Electric was allowed to build transmitters. Also in the agreements, AT&T was made the only station that was allowed to engage in toll broadcasting and chain broadcasting. This paved the way for the next step in radio development in America, radio advertising.

WEAF, an AT&T station in New York broadcasted the first radio advertisement in 1923. Even with the RCA agreements, other station began radio advertising. Most of the other radio stations were owned by private businesses and were used exclusively to sell that company’s products. The RCA agreements did create a problem though, it gave AT&T a monopoly over toll broadcasting and therefore radio advertisements. To break the monopoly, NBC and CBS were created and became the first radio networks in the late 1920s era. Walter Cronkite and Edward R. Murrow became the first radio journalists, and by the end of the decade the radio had become an important source for news in America. In the next decade war in Europe again broke out and it fell on the radio to cover it. The radio acted to pacify and assuage the worries of a confused and scared public. More importantly the radio helped to pull together the nation’s moral and backing of the war effort. With the end of the war in 1945 television saw its rise to prominence and radio began to go on a slow but steady decline. But in the 1950’s thanks to Rock and Roll the radio saw new life.

Following the Second World War the radio turned into its more recognizable for of musical entertainment. AM stations played a top-40 time and temperature format, which meant they played popular three minute songs in constant rotation. All programming and music became aimed at a target audience of ages twelve to thirty five, newly emerging “middle class”. The sixties and seventies also saw the rise of FM radio. The new music that FM aired began to pose a threat to the old top-40 music AM stations still played in rotation, and the growing music of the hippie and psychedelic generation took over the FM airwaves. Through the 80s and 90s radio broadcasting continued to expand. Thousands of more stations sprung up playing all different kinds of music, world, pop, rock, jazz, classical, etc… However, in the 21st century the radio has reached its greatest heights.

With the year 2000 the radio expanded into the satellite and internet markets. The need for live DJ’s is dwindling since everything can be done via a computer all the editing and broadcasting can be done using hard drive of a computer. Jobs that used to take hours to do can now be done with the simple click of a mouse. Car companies have paired up with satellite radio stations like XM radio to offer special deals on satellite radios which offer every kind of music, news, and entertainment stations one could ask for.

From a tiny receiver that could transmit only sounds to a complex device with satellites in space and wireless systems in cars, the radio has seen tremendous development. The purpose of the radio, however, has remained constant. From its inception the radio was created to communicate messages in mass for. Whether it be strictly news stories like in its early days, or binging new music to fans across the nation information is always being shared via this device. In almost every country radios are present, and in some it is a primary means for communication. Without its invention our world would be vastly different, it offered the first true means of mass communication and allowed leaders and people alike to impart valuable information to each other with the ease and efficiency.

World Mosquito Day

World Mosquito Day was first established in 1897, when the link between mosquitoes and malaria transmission was discovered by Sir Ronald Ross. It aims to raise awareness about the causes of malaria and how it can be prevented, as well as fundraising for research into the cure of malaria. It is also a salute to the groundbreaking work of Sir Ross and scientists who have followed him.

Sir Ronald Ross was born in Almora, India in 1857 to Sir C.C.G. Ross, a General in the Indian Army, and his wife Matilda. At the age of eight, he was sent to England to be educated and spent much of his childhood with an aunt and uncle on the Isle of Wight. During his early years he developed interests in poetry, literature, music, and mathematics, all of which he continued to engage in for the rest of his life.

Although he had no predisposition to medicine, at the age of 17 he submitted to his father's wish to see him enter the Indian Medical Service. He began his medical studies at St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, London in 1874 and sat the examinations for the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1879. He took the post of ship surgeon on a transatlantic steamship while studying for, and gaining the Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries, which allowed him to enter the Indian Medical Service in 1881, where he held temporary appointments in Madras, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. During a year's leave, from June 1888 to May 1889, he developed his scientific interests and studied for the Diploma in Public Health from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in England and took a course in bacteriology under Professor E. E. Klein. He also married Miss Rosa Bloxam, who accompanied him to Bangalore when he returned for duty as a staff surgeon.

In 1892 he became interested in malaria and, having originally doubted the parasites' existence, became an enthusiastic convert to the belief that malaria parasites were in the blood stream when this was demonstrated to him by Patrick Manson during a period of home leave in 1894. (Sir Patrick Manson is considered by many to be the father of tropical medicine. He was the first person to demonstrate, in 1878, that a parasite that causes human disease could infect a mosquito—in this case, the filarial worm that causes elephantiasis. He was also physician to the Seamen's Hospital Society, the Medical Advisor to the Colonial Office, and later the founder of the London School of Tropical Medicine and the Hong Kong College of Medicine.)

On his return to India in 1895, Ross began his quest to prove the hypothesis of Alphonse Laveran and Manson that mosquitoes were connected with the propagation of malaria, and regularly corresponded with Manson on his findings. However his progress was hampered by the Indian Medical Service, which ordered him from Madras to a malaria-free environment in Rajputana. Ross threatened to resign but, following representations on his behalf by Manson, the Indian Government put him on special duty for a year to investigate malaria and kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis).

On 20 August 1897, in Secunderabad, Ross made his landmark discovery. While dissecting the stomach tissue of an anopheline mosquito fed four days previously on a malarious patient, he found the malaria parasite and went on to prove the role of Anophelesmosquitoes in the transmission of malaria parasites in humans.

He continued his research into malaria in India, using a more convenient experimental model, malaria in birds. By July 1898, he had demonstrated that mosquitoes could serve as intermediate hosts for bird malaria. After feeding mosquitoes on infected birds, he found that the malaria parasites could develop in the mosquitoes and migrate to the insects' salivary glands, allowing the mosquitoes to infect other birds during subsequent blood meals.

In 1899 Ross resigned from the Indian Medical Service and returned to England. He worked for the newly established Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, taking a post as lecturer and later becoming Professor of Tropical Medicine, and accepted a personal chair in Tropical Sanitation at Liverpool University. One of his first roles at the School was to investigate and devise anti-malaria schemes in West Africa. This was the first of many expeditions that Ross undertook to investigate and develop malaria control measures including visits to Ismailia in Egypt at the request of the Suez Canal Company in 1902, Panama in 1904, Greece in 1906, and Mauritius in 1907-1908.

In 1901 Ross was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and also a Fellow of the Royal Society, of which he became Vice-President from 1911 to 1913. In 1902 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it." In 1902 he was appointed a Companion of the Most Honourable Order of Bath by His Majesty the King of Great Britain, and in 1911 he was elevated to the rank of Knight Commander of the same Order. He received an honorary M.D. degree in Stockholm at the centenary celebration of the Karolinska Institute in 1910 and was awarded honorary membership of many learned societies around the world throughout his career.

During the First World War (1914-1918), Ross was appointed a consultant physician on tropical diseases to Indian troops and was sent to Alexandria for four months to investigate an outbreak of dysentery that was hampering troops in the Dardanelles. In 1917 he was appointed a consultant physician to the War Office and in 1919 he received an honorary post as consultant to the Ministry of Pensions.

In 1926 the Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases was opened on Putney Heath, London by the Prince of Wales as a memorial to and in recognition of Ross' work. The main focus of the Institute was the study of the nature and treatment, propagation, and prevention of tropical diseases. Ross assumed the post of Director in Chief, which he held until his death in 1932. The Institute was incorporated into the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine in 1934.

Ross wrote extensively on malaria including his book The Prevention of Malaria in 1911 and on other topics including mathematics. He also wrote a number of novels including The Child of the Ocean, Spirit of the Storm, and The Revels of Orsera.

In 1928, Ross advertised his papers for sale in Science Progress, making it known that he needed the money for the provision of his wife and family. They were bought by Lady Houston for £2000, who offered them to the British Museum. They refused the collection, partly due to Ross' stipulation that his arrangement of the papers had to be retained and also due to some canvassing from members of the Ross Institute who thought that the collection would be better placed with them. These papers, the majority of which are now held by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, are currently being preserved and catalogued according to archival standards through funding from theWellcome Trust. The Ross collection includes correspondence on the mosquito-malaria theory with many individuals including Sir Patrick Manson, Charles Alphonse Laveran, William Crawford Gorgas, and Joseph Lister; notebooks containing details of his scientific research; manuscripts and published articles on malaria and other diseases; material on Ross' dispute with Italian scientists over the mosquito-malaria theory; and records of Ross' expeditions overseas to develop and implement mosquito control measures. The catalogue of the collection is available to search on the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Web site.

The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine celebrates World Mosquito Day with exhibitions and parties designed both to entertain and to inform, while other celebrations include Malaria No More’s ‘Mozzy Air’ campaign, encouraging people to take anti-malarial when flying to malaria zones, and Nothing But Nets’ twitter campaigns to provide mosquito nets for poor communities.

Get involved by holding a fundraiser to provide nets or quinine, distributing information about the precautions people should take when travelling to danger spots, or celebrating the achievements of research into mosquitoes and how to prevent the diseases they carry.