Tuesday, October 13, 2015

Holidays and Observances for October 13 2015

I want to extend an apology to all my friends family and people who follow this blog. I've decided to take a small sabbatical. Thank you 

Ada Lovelace Day

Ada Lovelace Day is held every year on the second Tuesday of October. Ada Lovelace Day is an international celebration of the achievements of women in science, technology, engineering and maths.

Ada Lovelace Day was launched in 2009 with a simple pledge on British civil action site, Pledgebank. Nearly 2,000 people signed up to blog about a woman in technology whom they admired on 24 March. The day was an astounding success, with contributors writing blog posts, newspaper columns and even a webcomic, Sydney Padua’s Thrilling Adventures of Lovelace and Babbage. The media covered Ada Lovelace Day with enthusiasm, including coverage from The Guardian, The Telegraph, the BBC and Computer Weekly amongst others.

In 2010, we had involvement from over 2,000 people who wrote about the women they admire. We held our first official event, with a keynote speech from technology journalist Maggie Philbin, most famous for her work on Tomorrow’s World.

2011 saw the first Ada Lovelace Day Live event, hosted by BCSWomen and featuring Helen Arney, Maggie Philbin, Gia Milinovich, Helen Keen, Kate Smurthwaite, Sara Pascoe, Dr Sue Black and Dr Maggie Aderin-Pocock. BCSWomen also organised the Android Extravaganza, an afternoon event where people learnt how to create an Android app. We also had seven grassroots events organised in the UK, US and online.

In 2012, we partnered with the Women’s Engineering Society and held ALD Live at The IET. Our event featured the WES Karen Burt Award, with performances from Helen Arney, Dr Suzie Sheehy, Gia Milinovich, Dr Helen Scales, Helen Keen, Dr Alice Bell, Sarah Angliss and Sydney Padua. We also collaborated with the Association for UK Interactive Entertainment  and the London Games Festival to organise the XX Games Jam, and all-female two day event in which teams competed to design and build the best computer game. And the Royal Society held a Women in Science themed Wikipedia  Edit-a-Thon in association with Wikimedia UK. In all, there were 25 independently-organised grassroots events in the UK, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Italy, Slovenia, Sweden and the USA, as well as online.

Ada Lovelace Day was founded by Suw Charman-Anderson in 2009 and aims to raise the profile of women in science, technology, engineering and maths by encouraging people around the world to talk about the women whose work they admire. This international day of celebration helps people learn about the achievements of women in STEM, inspiring others and creating new role models for young and old alike.

The inspiration for Ada Lovelace Day came from psychologist Penelope Lockwood, who carried out a study which found that women need to see female role models more than men need to see male role models. “Outstanding women can function as inspirational examples of success,” she said, “illustrating the kinds of achievements that are possible for women around them. They demonstrate that it is possible to overcome traditional gender barriers, indicating to other women that high levels of success are indeed attainable.”

Ada Lovelace is widely held to have been the first computer programmer. Close friends with inventor Charles Babbage, Lovelace was intrigued by his Analytical Engine and in 1842, she translated a description of it by italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea. Babbage asked her to expand the article, “as she understood [it] so well”, and this was when she wrote several early ‘computer programs’. Ada Lovelace died of cancer at 36, her potential tragically unfulfilled.

International Day for Failure

Maybe you already knew that October 13 was National Yorkshire Pudding Day and National Train Your Brain Day, but did you know that it’s also the International Day for Failure?

Started in Finland in 2010, the International Day for Failure is a new international holiday to rethink, share and learn from failure. This year the campaign has, perhaps ironically, been a big success and gone global with Day for Failure events in over 17 countries around the world, including Germany, Greece, Japan, South Korea, and Australia.

To be fair, Finland is hardly a failure. Just this week the Grant Thornton Global Dynamism Index , declared Finland the second best place on the planet to run a business (Singapore ranks first. The U.S., meanwhile, slipped to 10th).

The organizers of International Day for Failure are trying to create a cultural shift in how people think about risk-taking and entrepreneurship by acknowledging that not every endeavor is a success, however, it does open the door to the next great thing.

In Good Fail, Bad Fail: What Made Caterpillar And Unmade Enron, Fast Company looks at two business leaders and how they approached mistakes differently.
“Mistakes are part of taking healthy risk. They provide us with new ways of thinking and give us new insights into how we can improve as leaders. Real failure doesn't come from making mistakes; it comes from avoiding errors at all possible cost, from fear of taking risks to the inability to grow. Being mistake-free is not success—in fact, it's not even possible. Still, we often avoid risks and ignore (and sometimes even hide) our mistakes. We don't like to talk about our mistakes and bring attention to them. It feels safer to look the other way or sweep them under the rug. But doing so stifles growth and dooms us to repeat our mistakes--it's why so many have the same struggles over and over again.”
Without failing, you’re not living, according to this Seattle Post Intelligencer story which talks about a young lawyer who racked up a string of personal and professional failures before he became the 16th President of the United States.
But perhaps Chamber Executive Vice President and COO David Chavern said it best when he recently wrote:
The fact of the matter is that this nation was propelled forward by extraordinary people who were willing to do extraordinary things.  We should applaud the risk-takers and the dreamers who are willing to stand out from the crowd and create the wealth and prosperity that we all enjoy. “Rather than denigrate what these people have done, we need to encourage more people to be like them. 

International Plain Language Day

October 13th is International Plain Language Day (IPLDay), a celebration of clear communication and the plain language movement. In Vancouver, we celebrated IPLDay a week early at Communication Convergence, a conference that brought together communicators from different fields for an afternoon of discussion. I’m fairly new to the concept of plain language, and throughout the afternoon I began to reflect on how it fits in with my role as a science communicator.

Plain language is clear, succinct writing designed to ensure the reader understands as quickly and completely as possible. Plain language strives to be easy to read, understand, and use. It avoids verbose, convoluted language and jargon. In many countries, laws mandate that public agencies use plain language to increase access to programs and services. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities includes plain language as one of the "modes, means and formats of communication."

The plain language movement encourages writing that is clear and easy to understand. Plain language advocates argue that access to easy-to-understand information is a human right. Often, important communication is difficult to understand: think about medical reports, rental agreements or job contracts. We like to joke about legalese, but misunderstandings of legal or medical documents can have serious consequences. This TED Talk explains it best.

Many governments have passed laws that require government documents to be written in plain language. October 13th was chosen as IPLDay because it’s the day Obama signed the Plain Writing Act of 2010, which states that all US government agencies must use clear communication in their documents. The Canadian federal government’s communications policy states that “Information about policies, programs, services and initiatives must be clear, relevant, objective, easy to understand and useful. To ensure clarity and consistency of information, plain language and proper grammar must be used in all communication with the public.” In 2013, the Canadian government introduced the Plain Language Labelling Initiative, which aims to make drug labels easier to understand.

International Skeptics Day

Non-believers, conspiracy theorists and Doubting Thomases will get a kick out of today’s holiday. Then again, maybe they won’t. But believe it or not, October 13 is International Skeptics Day. Or is it? While there is not enough concrete evidence about how or when this annual “holiday” began, International Skeptics Day is also celebrated on January 13th and/or the first Friday in January.

Skeptics are folks who doubt the truth and question the validity or authenticity of something most believe to be factual. For instance, some skeptics question the validity of global warming despite claims made by experts in the scientific community. Other skeptics do not believe we ever landed on the moon and the famous images of the moon landings are fakes.

Some refuse to believe President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by lone gunman Lee Harvey Oswald while others believe the late Princess Diana was murdered. And some wonder if Elvis faked his own death? And some people believe the horrendous terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were part of a conspiracy. Whether you are a believer or a skeptic, check out Area 51 and the controversial incident that took place in Roswell, New Mexico back in 1947.

So, is it wise to automatically believe everything we are told or is it better to question? What do you think?

Websites for Skeptics - Hoaxes, Conspiracy Theories & Urban Legends
  • Mythbusters – If you downed Diet Coke and Mentos, would your stomach explode? If you ate a few poppy seed muffins, would you test positive on a drug test? Watch popular Mythbusters Jamie and Adam, prove or dispel popular myths in this Emmy-nominated television series on the Discovery Channel.
  • Comprised of scientists, scholars, historians, educators and investigative journalists, Skeptics provides “sound scientific viewpoint on claims of the paranormal, pseudoscience, fringe groups, cults and claims between: science, pseudoscience, junk science, voodoo science, pathological science, bad science, non science and plain old nonsense.”
  • Snopes is the place to go for information on urban legends, myths, rumors and folklore.
  • David Emery is the About.com Guide to Urban Legends. He’ll share current hoaxes and legends and the classics too.
  • From historical “facts” and politics, to aliens, technology and celebs, Theories of Conspiracy runs the gamut when it comes to conspiracies.
  • With more than 244,000 members, Above Top Secret is the “largest and most popular discussion board” on a slew of topics including UFOs, paranormal, political scandals and more.
  • Created in 1994, the Skeptic’s Dictionary provides a look on a slew of topics including UFOs, paranormal, supernatural, alternative medicine and more. There is also a Skeptic’s Dictionary for Children too!
  • Infowars is a popular website from radio host, documentary maker and publisher, Alex Jones. You’ll find interviews, podcasts, forums, world news and special reports displayed like a traditional news site.
International Suit Up Day

Today we all have How I Met Your Mother to thank for the latest holiday to take the Internet by storm. Fans of HIMYM have borrowed Barney Stinson’s catchphrase – “Suit up!” – and declared Oct. 13 International Suit Up Day. Celebrating this new holiday is simple – all you really need to do is wear a suit anywhere you’re going today. Wear one to work, to school, to your favorite bar (bonus points if you drink at a bar called MacLaren’s), or even on the couch at home all day. (Think of Barney’s suit pajamas!) The websites InternationalSuitUpDay.com and SuitUpDay.com have even offered simple suggestions for those of us who do not own suits – buy a suit (duh) or just watch How I Met Your Mother. Who else plans on rewatching Monday’s instant-classic “Subway Wars” episode?

Not convinced that a suit is the perfect choice of attire for whatever you do today? Watch Barney’s ode to the suit, his fantastic “Nothing Suits Me Like A Suit” musical number from HIMYM, and maybe feel compelled to celebrate today – the right way.

Metastatic Breast Cancer Awareness Day

Metastatic Breast Cancer Awareness Day is October 13th.

Metastatic breast cancer is when cancer makes its way through the blood stream or lymphatic system from the breast to distant organs in a woman’s body such as the brain, liver, lungs or in the bones. Under a microscope, the cancer in the new location will look similar to the original cancer in the breast, and it is still treated as breast cancer. Metastatic disease also is referred to as stage-four or advanced breast cancer.
Fortunately today, due to heightened awareness, regular screenings and self-exams, the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer in the early stages are cured. A small number of women (5 to 9 percent) are diagnosed with advanced disease at the time of their initial breast cancer diagnosis. There are instances, however, when breast cancer returns in another location; this can be months or many years later. Symptoms of recurrence may include bone or joint pain, a cough that won’t go away, pain or weakness, changes in bowel and bladder function, loss of appetite or weight loss. 

Different kinds of tests can confirm whether the breast cancer has spread. These tests also will guide the treatment options that women and their oncologists discuss and agree upon. At this time, metastatic disease cannot be cured, but new treatments are prolonging lives far longer than any time in the past. The goal of treatment at this advanced stage is to keep the cancer under control for as long as possible, while maintaining the best quality of life for the woman.

Treatment options include chemotherapy, usually given directly into the blood to reach the cancer cells; hormonal therapy intended to slow or stop the growth of certain types of breast cancer cells; and targeted therapy, which attacks specific proteins or genes on the cancer cells which inhibit those cells ability to grow. Radiation therapy may be used to control the spreading of cancer. There also are many complementary medicine therapies such as acupuncture, massage, yoga and meditation, which may provide comfort and relief. These various therapies often are used in combination for the best effect. 

Clinical trials and research studies of new therapies make this an especially promising time for women with advanced breast cancer. There are an estimated 155,000 women living with metastatic breast cancer in the U.S. – they are in the workplace, at the grocery store, carpooling, traveling and living each day as a gift. They are experiencing new challenges and opportunities. They are learning to live with uncertainty; coping with a treatment regimen and its side effects; managing pain and fear; acknowledging not only their own emotions but those of loved ones; being able to receive help and love; and looking to end-of-life decisions while living gratefully in the moment.

National Train Your Brain Day

Every year on October 13th, National Train Your Brain Day is a day in which awareness of brain health is encouraged. When we think of exercising it is usually in regard to our bodies, but our brain needs a workout as well.

It is important to continually exercise our cognitive skills by reading, putting together a puzzle, learning a new language, or any of the many different ways you can stimulate your brain. We depend on our brain for many things such as thinking, remembering, and sleeping. It is critical to our well-being that our brain stays healthy and motivated.

Your brain needs stimulation and training. Many people have not focused on training their brain. Do you want to get your brain in shape? Following the steps below can improve your brain's function, "exercise" your brain, and keep your brain from becoming lazy.

  1. Invest in a brain-training game. These aren't the only way to train your brain, but many think brain-training games are the best. Some examples of popular brain-training games include "Brain Age: Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day!" for the Nintendo DS and "Brain Challenge" for Apple's iPod. These supposedly work all of the areas of the brain and can help you exercise your brain effectively.
  2. Include some basic problems in your day. These can include, but aren't limited to: basic arithmetic, puzzles like crossword and sudoku, games that require thought like Chess, etc. These problems require your brain to work and not only help train your brain, but make you better at these things(maybe you'll become a Chess master).
  3. Include exercise in your day. Not only can exercising your brain help it, but exercising other parts of your body may help, too. Exercise has many mental benefits such as improving cognitive functioning, reducing the risk of developing dementia, and many other benefits, too.[citation needed] You can also supposedly think better after exercise, so it would also be a good idea to exercise your body immediately before you exercise your brain.
  4. Eat a good breakfast. Eating the right breakfast can have quite an impact on brainpower. It has been shown that kids who have fizzy drinks and sugary snacks for breakfast perform poorly on tests of memory and attention.[citation needed] Eating a good breakfast everyday will also insure that you have the energy throughout the day to exercise your mind and body.
  5. Limit the television you watch. When you watch TV, your brain goes into neutral. In one study says that people watching TV had increased alpha brain waves—their brains were in a passive state as if they were just sitting in the dark.[citation needed] TV watching has been tied to low achievement[citation needed] of course, and why would you want that?
  6. Laugh. Studies have shown that people are typically better at solving exercises designed to measure creative thinking right after exposure to comedy. Subjects claimed that they felt more alert, active, interested, and excited after watching comedy. There's a caveat, though: Humor can be distracting and may decrease performance on non-creative tasks.
  7. Learn something new. By learning something else, you are exercising an important skill of your brain - the ability to learn.
  8. Don't do stuff you don't want to do. If you get bored doing mental maths problems, don't do them. Don't feel you have to do it just to make your brain better. If you don't enjoy it, you won't learn anything!

To celebrate National Train Your Brain Day, boost your brain health by taking part in some brain exercises such as a Sudoku puzzle or expand your mind by learning something new.

National Yorkshire Pudding Day

Today is National Yorkshire Pudding Day! Yorkshire pudding is an iconic British pastry similar to a popover.

The origin of the Yorkshire pudding is, as yet, unknown. There are no cave drawings, hieroglyphics and so far, no-one has unearthed a Roman Yorkshire pudding dish buried beneath the streets of York. The puddings may have been brought to these shores by any of the invading armies across the centuries but unfortunately any evidence of this has yet to be discovered. 

The first ever recorded recipe appears in a book, The Whole Duty of a Woman in 1737 and listed as A Dripping Pudding - the dripping coming from spit-roast meat. 

'Make a good batter as for pancakes ; put in a hot toss-pan over the fire with a bit of butter to fry the bottom a little then put the pan and butter under a shoulder of mutton , instead of a dripping pan, keeping frequently shaking it by the handle and it will be light and savoury, and fit to take up when your mutton is enough; then turn it in a dish and serve it hot.' 

The next recorded recipe took the strange pudding from local delicacy to become the nation's favorite dish following publication in The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse in 1747. As one of the most famous food writers of the time, the popularity of the book spread the word of the Yorkshire Pudding. 'It is an exceeding good Pudding, the Gravy of the Meat eats well with it,' states Hannah. 

Take a quart of milk, four eggs, and a little salt, make it up into a thick batter with flour, like a pancake batter. You must have a good piece of meat at the fire, take a stew-pan and put some dripping in, set it on the fire, when it boils, pour in your pudding, let it bake on the fire till you think it is high enough, then turn a plate upside-down in the dripping-pan, that the dripping may not be blacked; set your stew-pan on it under your meat, and let the dripping drop on the pudding, and the heat of the fire come to it, to make it of a fine brown. When your meat is done and set to table, drain all the fat from your pudding, and set it on the fire again to dry a little; then slide it as dry as you can into a dish, melt some butter, and pour into a cup, and set in the middle of the pudding. It is an exceeding good pudding, the gravy of the meat eats well with it. 

Mrs Beeton may have been Britain's most famous food writer of the 19th century but her recipe omitted one of the fundamental rules for making Yorkshire pudding - the need for the hottest oven possible. The recipe was further wrong by stating to cook the pudding in advance before placing it under the meat an hour before needed. Yorkshire folk blame her error on her southern origins. 

Yorkshire Pudding is still a very popular dish in modern-day Britain, and often makes an appearance at big Sunday dinners. In fact, culinary historians refer to it as the national dish of England. To celebrate National Yorkshire Pudding Day, make a delicious homemade batch to enjoy with your family!

Silly Sayings Day

Don't get your dander up but it's time to spill the beans! October 13 is Silly Sayings Day, an annual "holiday" that celebrates silly sayings and phrases.

Like fashion, popular catch phrases, interesting expressions and witty sayings tend to come and go. While some of today's most popular phrases include a slew of easy-to-use acronyms like LOL, BFF and BRB, many popular phrases from days gone by are still used today. But have you ever really stopped to think what these sayings actually mean?

Take a peek at a few of the sayings below and try to figure out what these once popular phrases actually mean. Give it a go and take your best shot!

Silly Sayings and Phrases
  • It's raining cats and dogs
  • Look what the cat dragged in
  • The cat's pajamas
  • The cat's meow
  • Cat got your tongue?
  • A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush
  • Bats in the belfry
  • A dog is a man's best friend
  • Hair of the dog that bit you
  • Bark up the wrong tree
  • Barking mad
  • Your chickens will come home to roost
  • Dont count your chickens before they hatch
  • High on the hog
  • Knee high to a grasshopper
  • Bee's knees
  • Fly in the ointment
  • Snug as a bug in a rug
  • Like a bull in a china shop
  • Get your goat
  • Get off your high horse
  • Straight from the horses mouth
  • Don't look a gift horse in the mouth
  • Horse feathers
  • Chew the cud
  • You can lead a jackass to water, but you can't make him drink!
  • Long in the tooth
  • Go berserk
  • Off your rocker
  • Mind your Ps and Qs
  • Loose lips sink ships
  • Caught red-handed
  • Look before you leap
  • Tickled pink
  • Tickle my fancy
  • Funny bone
  • Skip to my Lou
  • For Pete's sake (who is Pete?)
  • Heavens to Betsy (who is Betsy?)
  • Heaven forbid
  • To hell in a hand basket
  • The jig is up
  • Face the music
  • Get your dander up
  • Fly by the seat of your pants
  • Head over heels
  • Beat around the bush
  • An empty gun makes the loudest bang!
  • Bite the bullet
  • Dead ringer
  • The sky's the limit
  • Straighten up
  • Kick the bucket
  • A drop in the bucket
  • Don't spill the beans
  • Slower than molasses in January
  • Fancy pants
  • A good man is hard to find
  • Hanky panky
  • Three sheets to the wind
  • Sticky wicket
  • Elbow grease
  • Old fogey
  • Hissy fit
  • Alive and kicking
  • Dead as a doornail
  • Where there is a will, there is a way
  • Always a bridesmaid, never a bride
  • Holy cow
  • Holy Toledo
  • Holy smokes
  • Jeepers creepers
  • Rise and shine
  • My stars
  • Come in if your nose is clean
  • That's the berries!
  • Hell bent
  • Don't get your dander up
  • On cloud nine
  • On the wagon
  • Once in a blue moon
  • Go to pot
  • Golly
  • Gee wiz
  • Gee Willikers
  • Dadgum it
The US Navy's Birthday

The Chief of Naval Operations has stated that the Navy Birthday is one of the two Navy-wide dates to be celebrated annually. This page provides historical information on the birth and early years of the Navy, including bibliographies, lists of the ships, and information on the first officers of the Continental Navy, as well as texts of original documents relating to Congress and the Continental Navy, 1775-1783.

The United States Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which the Continental Congress established on 13 October 1775, by authorizing the procurement, fitting out, manning, and dispatch of two armed vessels to cruise in search of munitions ships supplying the British Army in America. The legislation also established a Naval Committee to supervise the work. All together, the Continental Navy numbered some fifty ships over the course of the war, with approximately twenty warships active at its maximum strength.

After the American War for Independence, Congress sold the surviving ships of the Continental Navy and released the seamen and officers. The Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, empowered Congress "to provide and maintain a navy." Acting on this authority, Congress ordered the construction and manning of six frigates in 1794, and the War Department administered naval affairs from that year until Congress established the Department of the Navy on 30 April 1798.

Not to be confused with the Navy Birthday or the founding of the Navy Department is Navy Day. The Navy League sponsored the first national observance of Navy Day in 1922 designed to give recognition to the naval service. The Navy League of New York proposed that the official observance be on 27 October in honor of President Theodore Roosevelt, who had been born on that day.

In 1972 Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt authorized recognition of 13 October as the Navys birthday. In contrast to Navy Day, the Navy Birthday is intended as an internal activity for members of the active forces and reserves, as well as retirees, and dependents. Since 1972 each CNO has encouraged a Navy-wide celebration of this occasion "to enhance a greater appreciation of our Navy heritage, and to provide a positive influence toward pride and professionalism in the naval service."

Monday, October 12, 2015

Holidays and Observances for October 12 2015

Columbus Day

Columbus Day is a U.S. holiday that commemorates the landing of Christopher Columbus in the New World on October 12, 1492. It was unofficially celebrated in a number of cities and states as early as the 18th century but did not become a federal holiday until the 1937. For many, the holiday is a way of both honoring Columbus’ achievements and celebrating Italian-American heritage. Throughout its history, Columbus Day and the man who inspired it have generated controversy, and many alternatives to the holiday have appeared in recent years.

A U.S. national holiday since 1937, Columbus Day commemorates the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World on October 12, 1492. The Italian-born explorer had set sail two months earlier, backed by the Spanish monarchs King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. He intended to chart a western sea route to China, India and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia; instead, he landed in the Bahamas, becoming the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland during the 10th century.

Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba and believed it was mainland China; in December the expedition found Hispaniola, which he though might be Japan. There, he established Spain’s first colony in the Americas with 39 of his men. In March 1493, the explorer returned to Spain in triumph, bearing gold, spices and “Indian” captives. He crossed the Atlantic several more times before his death in 1506; by his third journey, he realized that he hadn't reached Asia but instead had stumbled upon a continent previously unknown to Europeans.

The first Columbus Day celebration took place in 1792, when New York’s Columbian Order–better known as Tammany Hall–held an event to commemorate the historic landing’s 300th anniversary. Taking pride in Columbus’ birthplace and faith, Italian and Catholic communities in various parts of the country began organizing annual religious ceremonies and parades in his honor. In 1892, President Benjamin Harrison issued a proclamation encouraging Americans to mark the 400th anniversary of Columbus’ voyage with patriotic festivities, writing, “On that day let the people, so far as possible, cease from toil and devote themselves to such exercises as may best express honor to the discoverer and their appreciation of the great achievements of the four completed centuries of American life.”

In 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Columbus Day a national holiday, largely as a result of intense lobbying by the Knights of Columbus, an influential Catholic fraternal benefits organization. Originally observed every October 12, it was fixed to the second Monday in October in 1971.

Opposition to Columbus Day dates back to the 19th century, when anti-immigrant groups in the United States rejected the holiday because of its association with Catholicism. In recent decades, Native Americans and other groups have protested the celebration of an event that indirectly resulted in the colonization of the Americas and the death of millions: European settlers brought a host of infectious diseases, including smallpox and influenza, that decimated indigenous populations; warfare between Native Americans and the colonists claimed many lives as well. The image of Christopher Columbus as an intrepid hero has also been called into question. Upon arriving in the Bahamas, the explorer and his men forced the native peoples they found there into slavery; later, while serving as the governor of Hispaniola, he allegedly imposed barbaric forms of punishment, including torture.

In many Latin American nations, the anniversary of Columbus’ landing has traditionally been observed as the Dìa de la Raza (“Day of the Race”), a celebration of Hispanic culture’s diverse roots. In 2002, Venezuela renamed the holiday Dìa de la Resistencia Indìgena (“Day of Indigenous Resistance”) to recognize native peoples and their experience. Several U.S. cities and states have replaced Columbus Day with alternative days of remembrance; examples include Berkeley’s Indigenous Peoples Day, South Dakota’s Native American Day and Hawaii’s Discoverer’s Day, which commemorates the arrival of Polynesian settlers.

In many parts of the United States, Columbus Day has evolved into a celebration of Italian-American heritage. Local groups host parades and street fairs featuring colorful costumes, music and Italian food. In cities and towns that use the day to honor indigenous peoples, activities include pow-wows, traditional dance and lessons about Native American culture.

Day of the 6 Billion

October 12, 1999, has been designated by the United Nations as the Day of 6 Billion, a symbolic observation of this historic population milestone.

According to United Nations projections, the Earth's population could be 7 billion, 9 billion or 11 billion in 50 years, depending upon the decisions made by today's young people about bearing children.

The number 6 billion does not mean much, especially if people are unaware of concepts like "population momentum." They are usually surprised to learn that it took hundreds of thousands of years to reach 1 billion in 1804; and that the 3 billion milestone came in 1960, and global population has doubled since then, to 6 billion in 1999.

Meeting the Needs of 6 Billion People
The number of people on earth is not the real story. The real story is improving the quality of life of every one of the 6 billion. The Day of 6 Billion is a time of reflection and action to ensure a healthy and safe future for our children and grandchildren.
  • At 1.07 billion, this is the history's largest generation of young people between 15 and 24. The reproductive choices these young people make will likely determine the planet's future. As they move into adulthood, these young people need access to family planning and reproductive health services, education, jobs and a healthy environment.
  • More than half the world's population is female (equal to the world's entire population in 1960). But too many women and girls in too many countries lack the right to decide their own futures and are denied opportunities for education, employment and health care. Around the world and here in the United States, the more education a girl receives, the more likely she is to postpone pregnancy, the safer her pregnancies will be and the fewer and healthier children she will have.
  • Our global environment is stressed by wasteful consumption, the pressures of rapid population growth and over-development. We may not have solutions to concerns of global warming, acid rain, environmental health or air and water pollution, but we do know what works to produce successful family planning and reproductive health programs.
Putting People First In an historic consensus, governments of the world came together at the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. They agreed on a Program of Action that puts people first and slows rapid population growth at the same time. The goals are to:
  • Improve and expand family planning and reproductive health care for all who want and need it.
  • Increase self-determination, education and economic opportunities to improve the status of women and girls.
  • End practices such as female genital mutilation and other forms of violence against women.
  • Invest $17 billion per year in global population and development programs - two-thirds from developing nations, one third from the developed world.
Fulfilling the Promise
As the third most populated country on earth, the United States needs to affirm its status as a world leader and meet its financial responsibilities. The needs of 6 billion people cannot be met unless U.S. policymakers fulfill their promise made at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 to help provide population and development funding in countries that cannot afford it themselves.
  • Most of the money for international family planning programs - two-thirds of it - is already coming from the developing countries that need it most.
  • Financial and technical help is needed from richer countries.
  • The United States should continue its financial commitment to the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) and increase other international humanitarian assistance through USAID programs.

Freethought Day

Freethought Day is celebrated on October 12th of each year, the annual observance by freethinkers and secularists of the anniversary of the effective end of the Salem Witch Trials.

The seminal event connected to Freethought Day is a letter written by then Massachusetts Governor William Phips in which he wrote to the Privy Council of the British monarchs, William and Mary, on this day in 1692. In this correspondence he outlined the quagmire that the trials had degenerated into, in part by a reliance on “evidence” of a non-objective nature and especially “spectral evidence” in which the accusers claimed to see devils and other phantasms consorting with the accused.

Note that, contrary to what has been claimed by some, there was no specific order or edict by Phips to ban “spectral evidence” from all legal proceedings. Rather, this was one concern that brought about Phips’ stopping the proceedings. When the trials ultimately resumed, “spectral evidence” was allowed but was largely discounted and those convicted were swiftly pardoned by Phips.

In the time leading up to the trials being stopped, it was actually clerics including the famous Cotton Mather, often portrayed as the chief villain in the hysteria, who took the lead in advising cautions against the use of “spectral evidence.” The Rev. Increase Mather, Cotton’s father, specifically condemned “spectral evidence” in his book ‘Cases of Conscience’, in which he stated that:
“It were better that ten suspected witches should escape, than that one Innocent Person should be Condemned.”
It was this shift in sentiment, no doubt aided by the escalating hysteria and the fact that accusations were beginning to reach higher into the Massachusetts Bay Colony hierarchy, that led to Phips’ action.

As Dr. Tim Gorski, Pastor of the North Texas Church of Freethought has observed:
“Now this is the important part: why did [Phips] do it? Was [he] a Freethinker? No. Was it that people suddenly realized that there are no witches, no demons, no evil spells and the like? No. No, the Phips edict came about with the complicity of all the devout fundamentalist believers that constituted the community of Salem and the Colony of Massachusetts because they had to.
Winston Churchill once remarked that ‘What the wise do in the beginning, fools do in the end.’ Churchill also said that ‘You can always count on Americans to do the right thing – after they've tried everything else!’
For, you see, eventually, at some point, and to some degree, people simply have to act rationally. You have to open doors before walking through doorways. You have to turn the key in your ignition before you drive home today. No amount of faith and prayer can allow anyone to do otherwise. And despite all the rhetorical flourishes of the superstitious believers, that’s the way it’s always been and always will be. Indeed, this truth is becoming more and more important every day.
It’s also the essence of the role of the law: to hold people to a standard of dealing with one another that’s based on reason. That’s the basis of every shall and shalt not that there is, not some divine command of ‘do it or else.'”

International Moment of Frustration Scream Day

Have you ever been so angry or exasperated with somebody while on the other hand, he or she doesn't even give a hedge to what you feel? How about a situation? The worst thing is you cannot do anything against it except for one thing– SCREAM OUT LOUD! Well, I must say, this day is your chance to do it officially. International Moment of Frustration Scream Day is celebrated always on the 12th of October.

International Moment of Frustration Scream Day is a day to share all your frustrations about everything around you. It was created by Thomas and Ruth Roy of Wellcat Holidays where everybody has to go out at 1200 hours Greenwich Time and yell at the top of their voices for 30 seconds. There may be no further details of the origin of this celebration or the reason behind why it was created, one thing is unquestionable about this—its exceptional and distinctive way to help individuals get their minds off their usual routines and customs even just for a day.

Some people I know may not be aware about such celebration, but honestly, I am seeing it to be very helpful for people to vent out their emotions by screaming, especially when they are just so overwhelm with too much things running in their heads or even in front of their eyes. Screaming and yelling out loud is a form of emancipating hurtful and disturbing sentiments towards situations, circumstances, and people in which they are exercising a good anger management procedure.

Basically, you don’t need too much time to prepare for this day. You simply need a reason why you are celebrating this holiday. Some reasons you might have are:
  • Enormously throbbing conditions
  • Overjoy of something
  • Annoying people around you
  • Being frightened
  • Horror movies
  • Ruthless dreams and nightmares
  • Terrible roller coaster
  • Needs assistance
But whatever reasons you have, might as well have a good day of screaming. Just make sure that you had a proper warm-up because it can probably cause damage to your vocal chords if done carelessly.

You can celebrate and scream all you want. Just make sure that your neighbors are well-informed about it unless they will call the police or 911 thinking that you have been robbed. You can also encourage a friend or a co-worker to join with you and try it. Later he will realize the act of kindness you did for him and he’ll be grateful for that. You can also watch movies suitable for this unique holiday with your friends at home and have some popcorn. Go to the mountain top and scream at the top of your lungs. Do some bungee jumping or rappelling that will cause you to scream naturally.

National Gumbo Day

It’s National Gumbo Day! Gumbo is a tasty stew-like dish that originated in Louisiana. The name comes from an African word for okra, which is the key ingredient used for thickening.

Of all the dishes in the repertoire of Louisiana cooking, gumbo is undoubtedly the most famous. One of the oldest dishes in Louisiana and a source of culinary pride as far back as there are written records, in modern times it has become as much of a cultural symbol of Louisiana as jazz or the bayou.  Even more so than jambalaya or red beans and rice, it is ubiquitous in restaurants, at special events, and in homes of all classes throughout Louisiana.

Generally speaking, a gumbo is a thick, dark soup containing a mixture of rice, vegetables, and meat or seafood. Yet when it comes to ingredients, the one constant in gumbo is variety.  Stanley Dry lists just two hard and fast rules:  a gumbo must always contain rice, and it must always be thickened with something.  Most gumbos are, in fact, double-thickened - first with a dark, oil-based roux (although Gumbo Z’Herbes is sometimes roux-less, as are some 19th century recipes), and then using either okra or filé powder, but never both (to connoisseurs, this as uncouth a practice as blending a Bordeaux with a Riesling).   Otherwise, anything might be thrown into the pot; one can even find written references to gumbo made with owl and muskrat.  However, despite this unlimited potential, the vast majority of gumbos fall into one of three categories:  Seafood Gumbo, containing some combination of oysters, shrimp, crawfish, and/or crabs, and more often made with okra than filé; Poultry and Sausage gumbo, which uses either chicken or turkey in combination with pieces of andouille or other smoked sausage, and more often made with filé than okra; and the increasingly rare Gumbo Z’Herbes, a meatless soup created for Lent that incorporates a wide variety of greens.  The greens symbolize different things to different families.  Most often the number of greens a person uses represents the number of new friends he or she is supposed to make that year, but said number is different according to different authors: some list a specific number like 7 or 9, while Fitzmorris insists on an even number of greens and Folse on an odd.  Leon Soniat best explains the reality of the situation: 
“When we got to the vegetable stands, where we bought the ingredients for the GUMBO Z’HERBES, there would be vegetable men or hawkers and their cries of ‘Get your greens, lady, get your twelve greens, get your fifteen greens, get your seven greens ‘–the numbers changed as we passed by each of the different stands.”
Because gumbo has been a staple in Louisiana kitchens long before written records of the dish existed, there are many myths surrounding its origins.  No one is even certain whether the dish is Cajun or Creole in origin - the oldest mention to date is when French explorer C.C. Robin ate it at a soiree on the Acadian coast in 1803. Yet there are records of New Orleans creoles enjoying it during roughly the same time period.  It is not uncommon to read that gumbo evolved from French fish soups such as bouillabaisse.  This seems highly unlikely for a number of reasons, particularly because--while Louisiana has its own version of bouillabaisse that is similar to the French version--the only ingredients in common between your standard bouillabaisse and your standard gumbo are water and salt.  Contrary to popular belief, the seafood gumbos that people erroneously assume to be the descendants of European fish soups were not the original style of gumbo, as the Cajun diet contained very little seafood before the 20th century. 

The oldest records I have found that describe the contents of gumbo are from Pavie in The Borderlands: The Journey Of Theodore Pavie to Louisiana and Texas in 1829-1830, Including Portions of his Souvenirs Atlantiques, by Betje Black Klier, where he mentions consuming:
“...lots of squirrel gumbo, a delicious stew made with rice and Chateaubriand’s sassafras...”
Despite these longstanding myths, as early as 1885 there were writers who recognized gumbo as the culinary legacy of the African/American community. Although the French contributed the concept of the roux and the Choctaw invented filé powder, the modern soup is overwhelmingly West African in character.  Not only does it resemble many of the okra-based soups found in contemporary Senegal, the name of the soup its self is derived from the Bantu words for the okra contained within (guingombo, tchingombo, or kingombo. A legacy of the colonial era, the modern French word for okra is quite simply “gombo”). 

Additionally, Jessica B. Harris has found Afro-Caribbean soups with similar compositions and names to their Louisiana counterpart. The recipe she gives in Iron Pots, Wooden Spoons (45) for a Giambo from Curacao reads like a modern Louisiana gumbo:  onion, celery, a ham hock, a bay leaf, etc.

While gumbo may be eaten at any time and for any reason, it may just as easily be featured as part of a special celebration.  For example, John Folse lists gumbo among the ingredients of the traditional Louisiana reveillon spread.  While the New Orleans Mardi Gras focuses on dishes such as Grillades and King Cake, gumbo is crucial to the Cajun version of the holiday. 

Enjoy Louisiana's most famous dish served over brown or white rice, and celebrate National Gumbo Day!

National Kick Butt Day

What goals have you yet to achieve? Have you been meaning to have an exercise routine, or to have a healthy diet? National Kick-Butt Day is a special day for that, to give yourself a little kick to improve and accomplish your goals. National Kick-Butt Day is celebrated every second Monday of October every year.

It is quite easy to interchange National Kick-Butt Day’s with the Kick-Butts Day. While National Kick-Butts Day is a day to give yourself a push for accomplishing goals, Kick-Butts Day is a campaign day to kick smoking habits off. The latter happens annually in March.

National Kick-Butt Day has no evident records of its origin. Still, on this day, everyone is encouraged to contemplate about their unmet goals, arrive at strategies to accomplish them and challenge themselves to actualize those goals.

Lately, success is often portrayed as something that is instant, something that can be achieved if you are at the right place and at the right time. However, that is not always the case. Success takes a combination of identifying attainable goals, evaluating strategies to achieve them and the perseverance to have them done.

Essentially, each of us has goals. Kick-butts Day is the day to make it your aim to achieve those goals, no matter how small. Zero-in on your goals and persevere in them. When you do these things, certainly you will have the best Kick-Butts Day!

Steps to have the Best National Kick-Butts Day
  1. Determine your goals. It can be rather easy to fall into the trap of setting our eyes on just about any goals. To avoid wasting time and resources, thoroughly examine yourself of your capabilities. Write down specific and achievable goals. This will help you identify which goals are appropriate for you.
  2. Choose and apply strategies. After determining your goals, ponder over these and research on the necessary strategies to achieve them. Having pondered and researched on these, apply these strategies.
  3. Stay motivated. Every now and then you will encounter setbacks and difficulties. Don’t lose heart! Evaluate your goals from time to time and focus on the reward. This will keep you inspired and it will help you to not give up easily.
  4. Have fun while doing it. Indeed there is some value in sustained effort. But keep everything in perspective and in balance. Don’t forget to enjoy while in the process.
Native Americans' Day

The second Monday of October annually marks Columbus Day in many parts the United States but not all states or region follow this observance. Instead, they celebrate other events on the day. For example, South Dakota's official holiday on this date is Native Americans' Day (also known as Native American Day), while people in Berkeley, California, celebrate Indigenous People's Day.

In South Dakota people celebrate Native Americans' Day through learning from educational resources that focus on the traditions, culture and background of Native Americans. It is a day to celebrate the heritage of Native Americans and for both native and non-native cultures to unite so the many aspects of native culture can be shared.

In Berkeley, California, some organizations, community groups and churches support the day through awareness-raising activities about the history, culture and traditions of indigenous peoples of the United States. Cultural activities such as markets and pow wows, which are gatherings of North America's indigenous people, are held. In modern times, pow wows involve dancing, singing, socializing and celebrating Native American culture.

Native Americans' Day is a public holiday in South Dakota and in Berkeley, California, instead of Columbus Day. Government offices are closed, as are many businesses and schools. Services such as police and fire departments, as well as emergency health services, may be available on this day. It is also a statewide observance in all of California on the fourth Friday of September.

In 1989 the South Dakota legislature unanimously passed legislation to proclaim 1990 as the “Year of Reconciliation” for Native Americans and to change Columbus Day to Native American Day. Since 1990 the second Monday in October has been celebrated as Native American Day in South Dakota.

In 1992 Columbus Day was no longer observed in Berkeley, California, but Indigenous People's Day would be celebrated instead on the second Monday in October. The city has been known for its political correctness and its officials designated 1992 as the Year of Indigenous People. In addition, in 1998 the California Assembly declared Native American Day as an official annual statewide observance on the fourth Friday of September.

Old Farmers Day

Old Farmers Day honors the hard labor of farmers throughout American history. Early American culture was heavily a farming culture. Early settlers cleared fields and pristine woods, to farm the rich land. They brought seeds and farming methods with them. They found new seeds, and learned new methods along the way. Many of those new farming methods came from Native Americans, who were already farming the land. Most notably, was the concept of hilling, or mounding soil.

The month of October is a very appropriate month to celebrate and honor farmers. At this time, the harvest is largely complete. It means that farmers can take a break from their labors, to enjoy this celebration.

A farmers' work is long and hard. It certainly doesn't make a person rich. It has its good years, and its bad ones. There is no guarantee of a good crop. Weather, pests, and disease problems often prove disastrous. But, through it all, farmers have persevered. And, their ceaseless hard work sets an example for all.

As Americans, we tip our hat to all farmers for their contributions to American culture, values,society, and the economy. Happy Old Farmers Day!

Our research did not find the creator, or the origin of this day. The origin of this day seems to date back to the early to mid 1800's. There appears for be many dates in September and October for local town "Farmer Days". Many have been around for a long time. For some unknown reason, October 12th is by far the most common date for this celebration of farming and of the harvest they reap.

World Arthritis Day

World Arthritis Day was established in 1996 by Arthritis and Rheumatism International (ARI) and is celebrated each year on 12 October.

Now, people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) from around the world can join together to make their voices heard on this day. World Arthritis Day is an ideal focus for organisations to raise awareness of issues affecting people with RMDs and for individuals to support campaigns. 

Although 12 October is the official World Arthritis Day, this is a year round campaign.

The aims of World Arthritis Day are:
  • To raise awareness of RMDs amongst the medical community, people with RMDs and the general public
  • To influence public policy by making decision-makers aware of the burden of RMDs and the steps which can be taken to ease it
  • To ensure all people with RMDs and their caregivers are aware of the vast support network available to them.
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that first targets the lining of joints (synovium).

Uric acid crystals, infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.

Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

Sunday, October 11, 2015

Holidays and Observances for October 11 2015

"You Go, Girl" Day

Time to remember the courage of Kathy Sullivan, the first American woman to walk in space. On this day we are encouraged to appreciate the efforts of "ALL" the women you know. This holiday is celebrated by saying "You Go Girl" to someone! Also by having a "You Go Girl get together"! Yep today can be party time so get all the girls together and celebrated all the females who have done something great for the year! That's right, gather everyone together for a few go girl drinks and give your female friends an extra pat on the back- "Youuuu Gooooo Girllll!"

Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan  Born October 3, 1951, in Paterson, New Jersey, but considers Woodland Hills, California, to be her hometown. She enjoys flying, squash, bicycling, backpacking, and reading in her spare time. Her father, Donald P. Sullivan, resides in Cupertino, California; her mother, Barbara K. Sullivan, is deceased.

Graduated from Taft High School, Woodland Hills, California, in 1969; received a bachelor of science degree in Earth sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz, in 1973, and a doctorate in geology from Dalhousie University (Halifax, Nova Scotia) in 1978. Awarded honorary degrees by Kent State University (2002); Ohio Dominican University (1998); Stevens Institute of Technology (1992); State University of New York, Utica (1991); Dalhousie University (1985).

Appointed a member of the National Science Board in November 2004. Served on the Pew Oceans Commission, whose nationwide study and subsequent report, "America's Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change," calls for immediate reform of U.S. ocean laws and policies to avert the decline of ocean wildlife and collapse of ocean ecosystems (2000-2003). In 2003, appointed Chair of the Ohio Aerospace and Defense Advisory Council by Ohio Governor Robert Taft. Appointed to the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel in 1988. In March 1985, appointed by President Reagan to the National Commission on Space. The Commission's report, entitled "Pioneering the Space Frontier," laid out goals for U.S. civilian space activities over the next 25 years. Adjunct Professor of Geology at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics. Member of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Explorers Club, the Society of Woman Geographers and Association of Space Explorers.

Aviation Week & Space Technology Aerospace Legend Award (2005); Astronaut Hall of Fame (2004); Public Service Award, National Science Board, in recognition of lifelong commitment to science education (2003); Juliette Award for National Women of Distinction, Girl Scouts USA (2002); Ohio Women's Hall of Fame (2002); Ohio Veteran's Hall of Fame (2001); Lone Sailor Award, U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation (1997); NASA Medal for Outstanding Leadership (1992); AIAA Haley Space Flight Award (1991); AAS Space Flight Achievement Award (1991); NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988 & 1991); NASA Space Flight Medal (1984 & 1990); Ten Outstanding Young People of the World Award, Jaycees International (1987); Ten Outstanding Young Americans Award, U.S. Jaycees (1987); National Air and Space Museum Trophy, Smithsonian Institution (1985); Four Presidential nominations under four different administrations (1985, 1992, 2000, 2004).

Most of Dr. Sullivan's efforts prior to joining NASA were concentrated in academic study and research. She was an earth sciences major at the University of California, Santa Cruz and spent 1971-1972 as an exchange student at the University of Bergen, Norway. Her bachelor's degree (with honors) was awarded in 1973.

Her doctoral studies at Dalhousie University included participation in a variety of oceanographic expeditions, under the auspices of the U.S. Geological Survey, Wood's Hole Oceanographic Institute and the Bedford Institute. Her research included the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Newfoundland Basin and fault zones off the Southern California Coast.

She is a private pilot, rated in powered and glider aircraft.

The first American woman to walk in space, Dr. Sullivan is a veteran of three shuttle missions and a 2004 inductee to the Astronaut Hall of Fame.

In 1993, Dr. Sullivan left NASA to accept a Presidential appointment to the post of Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Here she oversaw a wide array of research and technology programs ranging from climate and global change to satellites and marine biodiversity.

From 1996 to 2006, Dr. Sullivan served as President and CEO of COSI (Center of Science & Industry) in Columbus, Ohio. Under her leadership, COSI strengthened its impact on science teaching in the classroom and its national reputation as an innovator of hands-on, inquiry-based science learning resources.

Dr. Sullivan then served as the inaugural Director of the Battelle Center for Mathematics and Science Education Policy in the John Glenn School of Public Affairs at The Ohio State University.

Dr. Kathryn Sullivan was confirmed by the Senate as the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator on March 6, 2014, having served as Acting NOAA Administrator since February 28, 2013.

Prior to her appointment as Acting Administrator, Dr. Sullivan held the position of Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Environmental Observation and Prediction and Deputy Administrator. As Assistant Secretary, Dr. Sullivan played a central role in directing Administration and NOAA priority work in the areas of weather and water services, climate science and services, integrated mapping services and Earth-observing capabilities. She also provided agency-wide direction with regard to satellites, space weather, water, and ocean observations and forecasts to best serve American communities and businesses.

Dr. Sullivan is the United States Co-chair of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), an intergovernmental body that is building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) to provide environmental intelligence relevant to societal needs.

Selected by NASA in January 1978, Dr. Sullivan became an astronaut in August 1979. Her Shuttle support assignments since then include: software development; launch and landing lead chase photographer; Orbiter and cargo test, checkout and launch support at Kennedy Space Center, Florida; extravehicular activity (EVA) and spacesuit support crew for several flights; and capsule communicator (CAPCOM) in Mission Control for numerous Shuttle missions. A veteran of three space flights, Dr. Sullivan was a mission specialist on STS-41G (October 5-13, 1984), STS-31 (April 24-29, 1990) and STS-45 (March 24-April 2, 1992).

Joining NASA, Dr. Sullivan's research interests were focused on remote sensing. She qualified as a systems engineer operator in NASA's WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft in 1978 and participated in several remote sensing projects in Alaska. She was a co-investigator on the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) experiment, which she flew on Mission STS-41G.

STS-41G, launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on October 5, 1984, with a crew of seven. During their eight-day mission, the crew deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, conducted scientific observations of the Earth with the OSTA-3 pallet (including the SIR-B radar, FILE, and MAPS experiments) and large format camera (LFC), conducted a satellite refueling demonstration using hydrazine fuel with the Orbital Refueling System (ORS), and conducted numerous in-cabin experiments as well as activating eight "Getaway Special" canisters. Dr. Sullivan and Commander Leestma also successfully conducted a 3-1/2 hour Extravehicular Activity (EVA) to demonstrate the feasibility of actual satellite refueling, making her the first U.S. woman to perform an EVA. STS-41G completed 132 orbits of the Earth in 197.5 hours, before landing at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on October 13, 1984.

In April 1990, Dr. Sullivan served on the crew of STS-31, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on April 24, 1990. During this five-day mission, crew members aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery deployed the Hubble Space Telescope, and conducted a variety of middeck experiments involving the study of protein crystal growth, polymer membrane processing and the effects of weightlessness and magnetic fields on an ion arc. They also operated a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in-cabin and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their record setting altitude of 380 miles. Following 76 orbits of the Earth in 121 hours, STS-31 Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on April 29, 1990.

Dr. Sullivan served as Payload Commander on STS-45, the first Spacelab mission dedicated to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. During this nine-day mission, the crew operated the twelve experiments that constituted the ATLAS-1 (Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science) cargo. ATLAS-1 obtained a vast array of detailed measurements of atmospheric chemical and physical properties, which will contribute significantly to improving our understanding of our climate and atmosphere. In addition, this was the first time an artificial beam of electrons was used to stimulate a man-made auroral discharge.

With the completion of her third mission, Dr. Sullivan logged more than 532 hours in space.

General Pulaski Memorial Day

General Pulaski Memorial Day is a United States holiday in honor of General Kazimierz Pułaski (spelled Casimir Pulaski in English), a Polish hero of the American Revolution. This holiday is held every year on October 11 by Presidential Proclamation, to commemorate his death from wounds suffered at the Siege of Savannah on October 9, 1779 and to honor the heritage of Polish Americans. The observance was established in 1929 when Congress passed a resolution (Public Resolution 16 of 1929) designating October 11 as General Pulaski Memorial Day. Every President has issued a proclamation for the observance annually since (except in 1930).

This is separate holiday from the regional holiday in the Chicago area titled Casimir Pulaski Day that commemorates Pulaski's birth on March 4, 1746.

The Siege of Savannah was an encounter of the American Revolutionary War in 1779. The year before, the city of Savannah, Georgia had been captured by a British expeditionary corps under Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell. The siege itself consisted of a joint Franco-American attempt to retake Savannah from September 16, 1779 to October 18, 1779. On October 9, 1779, a major assault against the British siege works failed. During the attack, Polish Count Kazimierz Pułaski, fighting on the American side, was mortally wounded. With the failure of the joint American-French attack, the siege failed, and the British remained in control of Georgia until July 1782, close to the end of the war.

The battle is much remembered in Haitian history; the Fontages Legion, consisting of over 500 gens de couleur—free men of color from Saint-Domingue—fought on the French side. Henri Christophe, who later became king of independent Haiti, is thought to have been among these troops.

In 2005 archaeologists with the Coastal Heritage Society and the LAMAR Institute discovered portions of the British fortifications at Spring Hill. The brunt of the combined French and American attack on October 9, 1779, was focused at that point. The find represents the first tangible remains of the battlefield. In 2008 the CHS/LAMAR Institute archaeology team discovered another segment of the British fortifications in Madison Square.

International Day of The Girl Child

The International Day of the Girl Child promotes girls’ rights and highlights gender inequalities that remain between girls and boys. It is a UN observance that is annually held on October 11.

The International Day of the Girl Child gives people and organizations the opportunity to raise public awareness of the different types of discrimination and abuse that many girls around the world suffer from. On this day, many community and political leaders talk to the public about the importance of girls’ right to equal education and their fundamental freedoms. Various events are held to showcase the work that people are doing to empower girls through active support and engagement with parents, families, and the wider community.

 Discrimination and violence against girls and violations of their human rights still happen. The UN felt a need to raise awareness of the challenges that millions of girls face every day. In December 2011, the UN declared that it would annually observe the International Day of the Girl Child, starting from October 11, 2012.

National Coming Out Day

National Coming Out Day (NCOD) is an internationally observed civil awareness day which takes place on October 11th. On this day people are celebrating individuals who publicly identify as bisexual, gay, lesbian, transgender - coming out regarding one's sexual orientation or gender identity being akin to a cultural rite of passage for so called LGBT people. The holiday is observed annually by members of the gay community and their straight allies.

The National Coming Out Day was founded in 1988, by Dr. Robert Eichberg, his partner William Gamble, and Jean O'Leary to celebrate the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights one year earlier. After a media push in 1990, NCOD was observed in all 50 US-states and seven other countries. The holiday is observed in a wide variety of ways: from rallies and parades to information tables in public spaces. 

Coming out (of the closet) is a figure of speech for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people's disclosure of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Framed and debated as a privacy issue, coming out of the closet is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey; a means toward feeling gay pride instead of shame and social stigma; or even career suicide.

National Sausage Pizza Day

Sausage and pizza lovers gather ‘round – October 11 is National Sausage Pizza Day! Whether you prefer homemade, frozen, dine-in or carry out, folks have been enjoying a slice or two of sausage pizza for ages. After all, who can resist the perfect combination of spicy sausage on a steaming hot piece of pie loaded with ooey-gooey cheese? In fact, sausage pizza is the second most popular type of pizza in the United States - pepperoni tops the list.

While the origins of this national food holiday are unknown, today is the perfect opportunity to indulge in a delicious sausage pizza. So go head and have a slice in honor of National Sausage Pizza Day. And just in case sausage isn't your preferred topping, no worries. October is National Pizza Month so you can celebrate all month long!

Pizza, from the Latin verb pìnsere, to press and from the Greek pektos, meaning "solid" or "clotted") is Greek in origin (see also pitta). The ancient Greeks covered their bread with oils, herbs and cheese. In Byzantine Greek, the word was spelled pita, pitta, meaning pie. The word has also spread to Turkish as pide,  and Bulgarian, Croatian and Serbian as pita, Albanian as pite and Modern Hebrew pittah.The Romans developed placenta, a sheet of dough topped with cheese and honey and flavored with bay leaves. Modern pizza originated in Italy as the Neapolitan pie with tomato. In 1889, cheese was added.
In 1889, during a visit to Naples, Queen Margherita of Italy was served a pizza resembling the colors of the Italian flag, red (tomato), white (mozzarella) and green (basil). This kind of pizza has been named after the Queen as Pizza Margherita

Southern Food Heritage Day

October 11 is Southern Food Heritage Day, the official day to pull out your cast iron pans and start up the smoker to enjoy your favorite Southern dishes. Let’s all raise our glasses to the delicacies of the South.

Regional cuisine develops as local food supplies blend with the varied cultural backgrounds of its cooks. The rural agricultural South produced vegetables, fruits, nuts, rice and corn. Game was plentiful: deer, rabbits, squirrels, birds and ducks of all kinds. Oysters, crabs, shrimp, saltwater and freshwater fish were easily procured. Native Americans, Spanish, English, African Americans and French contributed varied ways of preparing the foods they found here or brought from their homes.

Early European settlers starved until they listened to their Indian neighbors and learned to enjoy corn, squash, pumpkins, beans of every color, wild onions, blueberries and blackberries, native plums and cherries. Eventually lima beans, chocolate, white and sweet potatoes and peppers made their way to our area from Latin America. Corn, the fundamental gift of Native Americans was not always appreciated. Early Frenchwomen along the Gulf Coast rebelled when they were forced to use gritty meal for bread instead of their good white wheat from France. But they survived on corn made into ashcakes, hoecakes, and johnnycakes. Every one seemed to enjoy the Indian popping corn.

In the sixteenth century, another Southern food staple trotted into Florida, Georgia, and the Carolinas behind Hernan de Soto's small army of explorers. The Spanish brought pigs along as a moving meat market. Some of these porkers ran away or were stolen by the Native Americans to become the ancestors of today's wild pigs. Baked ham, country ham and cornbread are still very "Southern".

The earliest European settlers were looking for quick wealth so agriculture in the South didn't take off until African farmers were brought here. African Americans brought seeds of collard greens, peas, okra (kumba), yams, watermelons and sesame (benne). They used the same farming techniques they had learned in Africa, creating a surplus of crops that became the basis for traditional Southern Hospitality.

The rural South of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced few cities outside of ports like Baltimore, Charleston, and New Orleans. Travel was difficult. Lonesome homesteads and plantations were far apart. Guests expected to visit for days if not weeks. Not only did they need to rest, but they brought news and entertainment to isolated families. Chickens and pork were served in every possible fashion. Salted, smoked country hams were boiled and baked and served with beaten biscuits. Greens and their potliquor were served with cornbread. Desserts featured ambrosia, trifles, sweet potato and pecan pies. Barbecues, and fish feasts drew distant neighbors together. At oyster roasts, oysters were steamed, fried, stewed, served in patties or just raw.

During the first half of the nineteenth century many of the richest citizens of the United States lived in the South. Based on slave labor and ever expanding land to the west king cotton reigned. When Southerners feasted they made a good job of it.

Saturday, October 10, 2015

Holidays and Observances for October 10 2015

Hug a Drummer Day

Hug a Drummer Day is celebrated annually on October 10th all around the world in order to pay tribute to and show appreciation for the drummers in bands. Because drummers sit at the very back of the stage during performances, it is often felt that they do not receive the recognition that they reserve and that they are unable to take their place in the spotlight with the rest of the band when they are on stage.

On Hug a Drummer day a number of special concerts are held around the world. For once, it is the drummer’s turn to shine as they take center stage. And of course, on this day the drummers will receive plenty of hugs and other tokens of appreciation from their fans. A large number of big drum manufacturers and percussionists have become involved with Hug a Drummer Day in recent years and the popularity of this annual event is rapidly increasing.

A drummer is a musician who plays drums, which includes a drum kit ("drum set" or "trap set", including cymbals) and accessory-based hardware which includes an assortment of pedals and standing support mechanisms, marching percussion or any musical instrument that is struck within the context of a wide assortment of musical genres. The termpercussionist applies to a musician who performs struck musical instruments of numerous diverse shapes, sizes and applications. Most contemporary western ensembles bandsfor rock, pop, jazz, R&B etc. include a drummer for purposes including timekeeping. Most drummers of this particular designation work within the context of a larger contingent (aka rhythm section) that may also include, keyboard (a percussion instrument) or guitar, auxiliary percussion (often of non western origin) and bass (bass viol or electric). Said ensembles may also include melodic based mallet percussion including: vibraphone, marimba or xylophone. The rhythm section, being the core metronomic foundation with which other melodic instruments, including voices, may present the harmonic/melodic portion of the material.

First and foremost, a drummer is a musician that performs music on the multi-percussion instrument known as the drum set, which usually consists of a bass drum (with pedal), a floor tom, tom-toms, a snare drum, hi-hats, a ride cymbal, and a crash cymbal.

In popular music, the primary function of the drummer is to "keep time" or provide a steady tempo and rhythmic foundation. However, in other musical styles, such as world, jazz, classical, and electronica, the function of a drummer is often shifted from "time keeper" to soloist, whereby the main melody becomes the rhythmic development generated by the drummer or percussionist.

There are many tools that a drummer can use for either timekeeping or soloing. These include cymbals (china, crash, ride, splash, hi-hats, etc.), snare, toms, auxiliary percussion (bells, Latin drums, cowbells, temple blocks) and many others. Also there are single, double, and triple bass pedals for the bass drum.

International African Penguin Awareness Day

Conservationist groups around the world will be celebrating International African Penguin Awareness Day on October 10th.

Most people do not know that the African penguin (spheniscus demersus) is the last remaining penguin species on the African continent.

Scientists have shown that others did exist eons ago, and it would seem that this raucous, much-loved “jackass” penguin proved to be tougher than the rest, claiming the southern tip of Africa as its own.

One cannot help but be entertained by this little bird in its black and white tuxedo – as conservationist Joe Moore states: “It is impossible to look at a penguin and remain angry.” We agree! And this may well be why hundreds of thousands of tourists flock to African penguin colonies along the Cape coastline every year. Spending hours marveling at these birds at Boulders Beach or Stony Point is sure to leave any onlooker with that warm and fuzzy feeling, which we try to share with our friends who could not make the journey with us.

When a species chooses a region of nature to inhabit this would imply that the selected habitat has shown itself to be most suitable to the animals’ needs. This must have been the case in order for the African penguin to settle and establish themselves in these popular colonies in Simonstown and Betty’s Bay.

Sadly the species is essentially holding on by a thread as you read this. It has been established by scientists that 50,000 unthreatened breeding pairs is what is required in order for the species to remain viable. The figures today show less than 40,000 remaining individuals propping up the population. Historical influences such as egg collecting for human consumption and guano scraping for fertilizer probably did the most damage.

Modern day concerns abound too with reduced food sources, oil spills and pollution as well as predation from wild animals, some of whose populations are thriving to the point of creating imbalances at the opposite end of the spectrum.

International Newspaper Carrier Day

"Extra! Extra! Read all about it." International Newspaper Carrier Day is celebrated on September 4th

International Newspaper Carrier Day is observed on varying dates, and is established by the Newspaper Association of America. Future dates: October 19, 2013, October 18, 2014.

International Newspaper Carrier Day honors everyone who is now, or once was, a newspaper carrier. The list includes thousands, if not millions, of people. Years ago, this job was primarily populated by kids, from pre-teen through approximately sixteen. At that age, many, but not all, kids moved to restaurant, grocery store and retail type of jobs.

This day commemorates the hiring of the very first newspaper carrier. Newspaper carriers date back to the early 1800s. On September 10, 1833, 10 year old Barney Flaherty became the first newspaper carrier. Benjamin Day, publisher of The New York Sun, hired Barney Flaherty to sell papers for his penny press. The only job requirement, was that he had to show that he could throw a newspaper into the bushes. Now, few kids deliver papers anymore except in small towns. But, but the "Carrier Day" tradition lives. This job is now largely held by adults, many of them delivering the paper from their cars.

Origin of International Newspaper Carrier Day: We found lots of references and information on National Newspaper Carrier Day. However, we do not know (yet) who created it.

About International Newspaper Carrier Day: This day recognizes the importance of newspaper carriers in getting the newspaper each day into the hands of millions of readers. This day honors carriers all over the world, as they deliver the paper diligently in all kinds of weather conditions. Even President Ronald Reagan got in on the act. On October 6, 1982, he wrote a brief message supporting this day.

We do not know who established International Newspaper Carrier Day. The Newspaper Association of America appears to take some ownership of this holiday, and publishes the dates for this event. They also sponsor an International Newspaper Carrier Week.

Have a very happy International Newspaper Carrier Day! How about watching the 1992 motion picture Newsies (featuring a very young Christian Bale) on Newspaper Carrier Day?

International Stage Management Day

International Stage Management Day is celebrated October 10. The first Stage Management Day took place last year on October 10. It’s being held again this year on the same day, but renamed the International Stage Management Day due to its popularity worldwide.

“Last year, as it turned out, Stage Management Day captured the imagination of people right across the world,” Andy Rowley, executive director of the Stage Management Association, told The Stage. “We traced Stage Management Day from New Zealand all the way across Australia, through Europe, the U.K. of course, and all the way across the U.S.A.”

The day celebrates all the work that stage managers do. Celebration examples from last year include letting stage managers take over Twitter feeds, food prepared for them by casts, and mentions in performance programs.

Stage management is the practice of organizing and coordinating a theatrical production. It encompasses a variety of activities, including organizing the production and coordinating communications between various personnel (e.g., between director and backstage crew, or actors and production management). Stage management is a sub-discipline of stagecraft. Stage managers may use a Stage Manager's book to help organize the production.

A stage manager is one who has overall responsibility for stage management and the smooth execution of a production. Stage management may be performed by an individual in small productions, while larger productions typically employ a stage management team consisting of a head stage manager, or "Production Stage Manager", and one or more assistant stage managers.

Between the Renaissance and the 16th century, actors and playwrights took upon themselves the handling of finances, general directorial duties, and stage management. Stage management first emerged as a distinct role in the 17th century during Shakespeare's and Molière's time, though it wasn't until the 18th century in England that the term Stage Manager was used. This was the first time a person other than actors and playwright was hired to direct or manage the stage. Over time, with the rise in complexity of theatre due to advances such as mechanized scenery, quick costume changes, and controlled lighting, the stage manager's job was split into two positions—director and stage manager.

Many playwrights, directors and actors had as their first job in the theatre work as an assistant stage manager. Writer and director Preston Sturges, for example, was employed as an ASM on Isadora Duncan's production of Oedipus Rex at the age of 16 and a half:
When one is responsible for giving an offstage cue, even the simplest ones, like the ring of a telephone or a bird call, demand considerable sangfroid, and the job is nerve wracking. One is very much aware that everything depends on the delivery of the cue at exactly the right microsecond. One stands there, knees slightly bent, breathing heavily...
Sturges didn't last long in this job, due to his calling for thunder and then lightning instead of lightning and then thunder, but 16 years later Brock Pemberton hired him as an ASM on Antoinette Perry's production of Goin' Home, which led to the first mounting of one of Sturge's plays on Broadway, The Guinea Pig, in 1929.

“It seems to be a chance to network and celebrate all the backstage really,” Rowley told The Stage. “Stage managers are such a linchpin backstage that they could hardly do it without all their colleagues—so it’s becoming more of a celebration backstage full stop.”

National Angel Food Cake Day

October 10th is National Angel Food Cake Day. Angel food cake, also called silver cake or cornstarch cake, is a relative of the sponge cake. It’s thought that the light and airy cake was invented by the Pennsylvania Dutch because they were the first to mass produce bake-ware, including the specialized pan used to make angel food cake.

While some historians claim that early Angel Food cakes were baked by slaves (the reason being that making this cake was labor-intensive, requiring a strong beating arm and lots of labor to whip the air into the whites), many signs point to the cake really planting itself in the common vernacular in Southeastern Pennsylvania, where the cake molds for the famous cake proliferate. "...angel (or angel food) cakes, which some believe evolved as the result of numerous egg whites left over after the making of noodles, may or may not be the brainchild of thrifty Pennsylvania cooks who considered it sinful to waste anything."

The first recipes do seem to crop up in cookbooks starting in the 1870s, shortly after the invention of a rotary beater. Not coincidentally, the cake also became more common then--much less physical labor involved.

1896 is the year it made its formal debut as “Angel Food Cake”, though, in that year’s updated edition of the Boston Cooking School cookbook. The recipe reads as follows:
"Angel Cake - One cup of flour, measured after one sifting, and then mixed with one teaspoonful of cream of tartar and sifted four times. Beat the whites of eleven eggs, with a wire beater or perforated spoon, until stiff and flaky. Add one cup and a half of fine granulated sugar, and beat again; add one teaspoon of vanilla or almond, then mix in flour quickly and lightly. Line the bottom and funnel of a cake pan with paper not greased, pour in the mixture, and bake about forty minutes. When done, loosen the cake around the edge, and turn out at once. Some persons have been more successful with this cake by mixing the sugar with the flour and cream of tartar, and adding all at once to the beaten egg."
Other names under which the cake may be seen are: Sponge Cake, Cornstarch Cake, Silver Cake, and/or Snow-drift Cake.

If you’re more of a chocolate fan, you can always try the angel food cake’s opposite - devil’s food cake.

National Cake Decorating Day

When it comes to October holidays,October 10 is the icing on the cake! Literally! It’s National Cake Decorating Day! Sweet!

Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative elements to make plain cakes more visually interesting. Alternatively, cakes can be molded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons, places and things.

Cakes are decorated to mark a special celebration (such as a birthday or wedding). They can also mark national or religious holidays, or be used to promote commercial enterprises. However, cakes may be baked and decorated for almost any social occasion.

Cake decorating originated in 17th century Europe. During the 1840s, the advent of temperature-controlled ovens and the production of baking powder made baking cakes much easier. As temperature control technology improved, an increased emphasis on presentation and ornamentation developed. Cakes began to take on decorative shapes, were adorned with additional icing formed into patterns and flowers, and food coloring was used to accent frosting or layers of cake.

Cake decorating was rumored to be started by a French bakery in the 1840s where a French baker wanted to increase the prices of the cakes and hence thought to decorate it.

Even though baking from scratch decreased during the latter part of the 20th century in the United States, decorated cakes have remained an important part of celebrations such as weddings, anniversaries, birthdays, showers and other special occasions. Recently, cakes decorated with fondant have become extremely popular and resulted in several reality based TV shows across the country.

The rise in popularity could be due to fondant providing a smooth and elegant finish to a cake, as well fondant's versatility when it comes to texturing it. A cake turntable (or rotating tray) can be used when decorating a cake.

Whether you consider yourself a novice, pro or somewhere in between, today is the perfect time to try your “hand” at sprucing up an otherwise ho-hum cake. Whether you use homemade frosting or store-bought, sparkly sprinkles, colorful candies or other fun decorations, you can go all out and create an elaborate design or plain and simple. The sky's the limit when it comes to cake decorating! And with Halloween right around the corner, why not whip up a creepy cake or some boo-tiful cupcakes perfect for the occasion?

You really don't have to be a talented artist to create a pretty cake. If a whole cake is just too big to tackle, why not try decorating a smaller version instead? In honor of National Cake Decorating Day, check out some cake and cupcake recipes. Now you really can have your (decorated) cake and eat it too!

National Chess Day

Do you know that there’s a special day such as National Chess Day that we observe every year just for this particular board game? Whether you are an inexperienced player or somebody who usually competes in a championship level, this is something you got to look forward to.

As we all know, chess is a two-player board game of strategy played on a chessboard. Considering that it is famous around the world, even a 4-year old child can be able to play with it. It has already become part of the culture. Since it is a game that really challenges your intellectual skills, it also sharpens your mind because it thrust you to think ahead of certain scheme in order to capture a king before your opponent gets yours.

In giving an exceptional recognition to a game that engenders challenge, logical motivation, satisfaction, and delight for individuals of all ages, which somehow also caused families and friends to be bonded together, former President Gerald Ford proclaimed and designated National Chess Day in October 09, 1976. But before it happened, there were series of requests from other group concerned including the Regional Vice-president of United States Chess Federation-(The Origins of National Chess Day) who wrote a letter requesting about a proclamation of the said commemorative activity. He stated that roughly 30 million Americans are playing chess and that it wasn't being recognized and honored as a great game. It was then reviewed and later, accepted. Since then, it is remembered every year, but has gradually faded away over the years because it wasn't official.

For past several years, every second Saturday of October has been declared National Chess Day by the U.S. Congress. Based on the THOMAS. Gov (The Library of Congress) the agreed resolution was designating October 13, 2012 as National Chess Day which fell on a Saturday. Logically, the date that falls on a second Saturday this year is the 12 of October, which is considered official. According to Bill Summary & Status Search Results – THOMAS (Library of Congress) there are no resolutions on the 113 Congress that has been stated about National Chess Day. So it is inoffensive to go with this day.

Basically, in order to be a part of this national celebration, there are tournaments being held in most parts of the world that encourages people to go out and compete with other players. This may be your first time to join this competition, but don’t worry if you lose, at least you give it a try. But if you would prefer to stay in your comfort zone, here are some few things to push the boat out and enjoy this special day:
  1. It’s a perfect day to bond with your kids by playing chess with them. You may challenge them and have your prizes ready, so they’ll be motivated to play seriously.
  2. You may want to collect different kinds and designs of chess sets. You can start from the modern designs to the ancient ones. It will astonish you to see how these designs evolved through time.
  3. You may educate youngsters on how to play chess. It will build and develop intelligence and sharpness of mind in them.
  4. If you never tried to play chess, but you like to know how, you can have a research for tutorials in the web that will teach you the basics and the techniques.
National Costume Swap Day

Green Halloween & EcoMom Alliance launched National Costume Swap Day in 2010. The actual date always falls on the second Saturday in October—which means this year it’s on Saturday, October 10th.

Second to the candy haul your kids take in Halloween night is finding the perfect Halloween costume. Make your Halloween costume shopping easy this year at National Costume Swap Day where you’ll be able to trade in last year’s outfit for an even cooler one that’ll surely impress. Read on to discover all about the best swap meet you’ll attend this year.

Since we first told you about  Green Halloween, a Seattle-based non-profit started by a mother-daughter team, they have expanded to cities all over the country.  Their mission? To offer eco-friendly and healthier alternatives in place of the traditional massive candy consumption (and waste) surrounding the holiday.

This year, in collaboration with Swap.com and KIWI Magazine, Green Halloween encourages parents to take part in National Costume Swap Day on Saturday, October 12, 2013. While each swap operates slightly differently, the end goal of providing a fun and eco-friendlier Halloween is the same. The swaps are happening at a variety of locations, some at consignment shops, or neighborhood baby gyms.

Like the idea? Find a swap near you or host one of your own and register it on the site. It’s easy to do and is a great idea for schools, moms groups and more. Check out Green Halloween for more ideas on having your very own Green Halloween (party ideas, trick-or treat options and more) and in the meantime, round up those excess ladybug, bunny, and pirate costumes and get ready to swap!

National Handbag Day

October 10th, is the 3rd annual National Handbag Day. It’s no secret that many women love handbags, sometimes perhaps a little too much, but who would have thought that it would ever get to the point where an entire day of the year would be put aside especially for handbags to be celebrated in all their glory? Well, believe it or not, Handbag Day exists, and real people actually do take some time out of their day to celebrate it and pay tribute to their beloved collection of handbags as well as all those they wish they could afford. It is a day when women talk about handbags…even more than usual, both on the Internet, through blogs, and in real life with friends. It is a day where the greatest designs and designers are discussed and celebrated. And also a day through which the purchase of a new handbag, or bags, for the more extravagant, can be justified and needs no explanation.

Purses and handbags have their origins in early pouches used to carry seeds, religious items and medicine. Early on, both men and women carried pouches. In the 15th century, a purse was a traditional gift from a groom to his bride. The bags typically were elaborately embroidered with an illustration of a love story. In New Guinea, centuries ago, both men and women carry large knit bags which looked like nets decorated with feathers, seashells and other mementos. The more shells a person had was a sign that they had many people who lived by the sea.

Chenoune says that the similarity between an haute couture tote and a satchel belonging to an African witch is that both bags hold a secret of some sort. He says bags are very personal, it holds the things you need for the day and the things you want to have, just for comfort or hobby. People began carrying items from home when the traveled, even on short trips. Items such as a deck of cards, knitting, a diary as well as beauty and personal items could be brought along.
Traditional wallets began as early as the 16th century, as small leather pouches which a drawstring tie could loop through a belt. Also in the 16th century there were ‘sweet’ bags that women used often as lavender bags to scent their handkerchiefs. Pockets, called bagges were also introduced into clothes around the same time and allowed people to carry small personal belongings.

By the late 18th century, women’s clothing was more form fitting and pockets ere not easily accommodated into the garment. Women began carrying small, often silk embroidered drawstring bags or purses called reticules, or 'ridicules'. These bags often carried a handkerchief, fan, dance card, perfume, or face powder. Reticules were smaller version of what women used to carry their needlework. This is likely the origin of the Dorothy bag which has since emerged as shoe bags, dress bags, laundry bags and today, gym bags.

The Victorian period brought a large variety of bags. Bags often were made t coordinate with the outfit and were now made of many different fabrics. By the mid 1800’s, bags changed from simply drawstring styles, to a popular flat style, that could be made in either a circular or square shape and was generally heavily decorated with beading and needlework. Patterns and directions for making these types of purses became popular in ladies magazines at that time.

There were also smaller versions, used as coin purses which often included a metal fastener.
By the early 20th century, women were carry bags every time they left home, even for short periods while hats were popular accessories that began to loose popularity by the early 20th century, handbags became increasingly popular. The success of the handbag has much to do with the fact that it has adapted to the needs of the time. Handbags held cigarettes, sunglasses rather than seeds and medicines. Years ago, it was ladylike to carry as little as possible. A small bag was typical. Today women are gone form home for longer periods of time, frequently working or if not, often with children along . The size of the typical bag has increased to meet the need. Eleanor Roosevelt is noted as a sing of the time as a very busy and active woman herself, she carried a large leather handbag not necessarily typical of the time.

Shoulder bags became popular during World War II and twentieth century technology opened up a variety of new f textures and materials from synthetics to hand-woven straws. Casual bags were made in rain proof materials and special tote bags for the beach developed. The variety of fabrics carried over to all hand bag designs and it has become common place for women to have many handbags, to meet the need of the occasion. It became fashionable for men to carry bags during the 1970’s though they were generally hobo style casual bags and even today, while it is not unusual to see a man with a messenger bag, hobo or some other form of tote, it is surely not common place.

National Metric Day

The 10th day of the 10th month, October 10. However, National Metric Day is applicable only to the USA as most other nations already use metric 24/7.

The first National Metric Week was held on May 10, 1976. It was started by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics the year after the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 was enacted. It remained in May for the first 8 years. National Metric Week was moved to October because it was deemed that the May date was too close to the end of the school year. Because the number 10 is the “nuts and bolts” of the metric system, October 10th is National Metric Day and National Metric Week is the week that includes October 10th.

The metric system is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement. It was originally based on the mètre des Archives and thekilogramme des Archives introduced by the First French Republic in 1799 but over the years, the definitions of the metre and the kilogram have been refined, and the metric system has been extended to incorporate many more units. Although a number of variants of the metric system emerged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the term is now often used as a synonym for "SI" or the "International System of Units"—the official system of measurement in almost every country in the world.

The metric system has been officially sanctioned for use in the United States since 1866, but it remains the only industrialised country that has not adopted the metric system as its official system of measurement. Many sources also cite Liberia and Burma as the only other countries not to have done so. Although the United Kingdom uses the metric system for most official purposes, the use of the imperial system of measure, particularly among the public, is widespread and is permitted by the law.

Although the originators intended to devise a system that was equally accessible to all, it proved necessary to use prototype units in the custody of national or local authorities as standards. Control of the prototype units of measure was maintained by the French government until 1875, when it passed to an inter-governmental organisation—the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM).

From its beginning, the main features of the metric system were the standard set of inter-related base units and a standard set of prefixes in powers of ten. These base units are used to derive larger and smaller units that could replace a huge number of other units of measure in existence. Although the system was first developed for commercial use, the development of coherent units of measure made it particularly suitable for science and engineering.

The uncoordinated use of the metric system by different scientific and engineering disciplines, particularly in the late 19th century, resulted in different choices of base units, even though all were based on the same definitions of the metre and the kilogram. During the 20th century, efforts were made to rationalize these units, and in 1960 the CGPM published the International System of Units which, since then, has been the internationally recognized standard metric system.

In 1586 the Flemish mathematician Simon Stevin published a small pamphlet called De Thiende ("the tenth"). Decimal fractions had been employed for the extraction of square roots some five centuries before his time, but nobody used decimal numbers in daily life. Stevin declared that using decimals was so important that the universal introduction of decimal weights, measures and coinage was only a matter of time.

One of the earliest proposals for a decimal system in which length, area, volume and mass were linked to each other was made by John Wilkins, first secretary of the Royal Society of London in his 1668 essay "An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language". His proposal used a pendulum that had a beat of one second as the basis of the unit of length. Two years later, in 1670, Gabriel Mouton, a French abbot and scientist, proposed a decimal system of length based on the circumference of the Earth. His suggestion was that a unit, the milliare, be defined as a minute of arc along a meridian. He then suggested a system of sub-units, dividing successively by factors of ten into the centuria, decuria, virga, virgula, decima, centesima, and millesima. His ideas attracted interest at the time, and were supported by both Jean Picard and Christiaan Huygens in 1673, and also studied at the Royal Society in London. In the same year, Gottfried Leibniz independently made proposals similar to those of Mouton.

In pre-revolutionary Europe, each state had its own system of units of measure. Some countries, such as Spain and Russia, saw the advantages of harmonising their units of measure with those of their trading partners. However, vested interests who profited from variations in units of measure opposed this. This was particularly prevalent in France where the huge inconsistency in the size of units of measure was one of the causes that, in 1789, led to the outbreak of the French Revolution. During the early years of the revolution, savants including the Marquis de Condorcet, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Adrien-Marie Legendre, Antoine Lavoisier and Jean-Charles de Borda set up a Commission of Weights and Measures. The commission was of the opinion that the country should adopt a completely new system of measure based on the principles of logic and natural phenomena. Logic dictated that such a system should be based on the radix used for counting. Their report of March 1791 to the Assemblée nationale constituante considered but rejected the view of Laplace that a duodecimalsystem of counting should replace the existing decimal system; the view such a system was bound to fail prevailed. The commission's final recommendation was that the assembly should promote a decimal based system of measurement. The leaders of the assembly accepted the views of the commission.

Initially France attempted to work with other countries towards the adoption of a common set of units of measure. Among the supporters of such an international system of units was Thomas Jeffersonwho, in 1790, presented a document Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States to congress in which he advocated a decimal system that used traditional names for units (such as ten inches per foot). The report was considered but not adopted by Congress.

National Tuxedo Day

Word on the street is that October 10th is National Tuxedo Day. We’re not sure who invented this wonderful holiday, but they clearly knew what they were doing. Traditionally, parties are either formal or they’re not formal. Now we’re starting to see more people in business attire at events that require formal wear, and that’s never a good look. Here’s a rule of thumb for formal gatherings: If somebody’s going to be wearing a tuxedo, everybody should be wearing a tuxedo.”

Ever wonder about the story behind the tuxedo? Or how this special black and white ensemble, casually referred to as a "tux," or even "penguin suit," became men's expected attire for special occasions? There are several theories about the "invention" of the tuxedo, but popular belief credits a man with a name as fancy as his creation -- Pierre Lorillard IV.

Pierre Lorillard was a wealthy tobacco magnate of the 19th century. He and his family lived 40 miles northwest of New York City in a residential colony called Tuxedo Park, founded on land acquired from the Algonquin Indian tribe. The land was originally called P'tauk-seet-tough, named after the tribal chief and meaning "home of the bear." The town's founders kept the phonetics of the name and christened the area Tuxedo Park.

The Lorillards circulated among the highest social circles and Pierre Lorillard helped establish Tuxedo Park as an elite hunting and fishing destination. A large, Italian labor force comprised of skilled artisans was used to construct a series of elegant homes within the walled area which remain part of a designated historical area. Tuxedo Park thus became a high profile residence and resort for the world's rich and famous. And, as would be expected, an extravagant social scene soon followed. Tuxedo Park's residents and regular guests even established their own social organization called the Tuxedo Club.

The Tuxedo Club's first annual Autumn Ball was held in October of 1886. At the time, men's formal dress consisted of long tailcoat and white tie. However, the assumedly dashing Pierre Lorillard commissioned a modified "tailless" black jacket to wear to the ball. Some say Lorillard was inspired by a dinner jacket designed by Savile Row tailor Henry Poole & Co., tailor to England's Prince of Wales who later became King Edward VII. Others claim he simply had the custom-made jacket styled according to the shorter shape of the red jackets then worn for formal fox hunts. No matter the source of inspiration for the new formal attire, it was a small, but radical departure from the traditional long tailcoat.

Despite his intent, Pierre Lorillard did not go through with his fashion plans for the ball. However, his perhaps more rebellious son Griswold Lorillard, along with several of his friends, did wear the short jacket to the ball. Due to the lofty social status of the young men, the short jacket was instantly admired as a striking fashion statement rather than condemned as a fashion faux pas. Pierre Lorillard's short jacket, donned by his son Griswold, was quickly copied and when gentlemen wearing tuxedos were admitted to the Dress Circle of New York's Metropolitan Opera in 1889, the success of this new fashion was confirmed. The "tuxedo," so dubbed after the town of its debut, thus went from fashionable trend to timeless classic.

The tuxedo is a standard in American formal attire and is a ubiquitous symbol of celebration and special occasion for men of any and all levels of society. It is the quintessential men's attire for formal affairs and an obvious choice for all but the most formal of weddings, galas, balls, formals, and high school proms. Pierre Lorillard's fashion deviation has become the enduring standard for men's formal attire. Nothing says tradition and elegance like the tuxedo.

In general, dress codes have become more relaxed over the years. We see this in the business-casual workplace, and while we wholeheartedly endorse mixing business and casual (one of our favorite looks is a navy blazer with jeans), formal wear is best left on its own.

Powers of Ten Day

Today is Powers of Ten Day! The iconic Eames film, Powers of Ten, is about “the relative size of things in the universe and the effect of adding another zero.” The film is technically ingenious while also beautiful and educational—adjectives that often describe Charles and Ray’s work, whether a house, chair, photograph, toy or exhibition.

The influences of Powers of Ten can be seen in movies such as Men in Black and television shows such as The Simpsons; the film can also be considered a precursor to now common-place technologies and service applications like Google Maps. But how else does it impact us today? How can contemplating the relative size of things in the universe pertain to our daily lives?

For me, personally, Powers of Ten serves as a reality check. Problems that seemed insurmountable before watching it suddenly feel less stressful. Long before I knew about Charles and Ray’s film, I could generate a similar effect by climbing to a higher altitude. Whether standing at the summit of Pikes Peak or peering down from the Eiffel Tower (10+03 feet), I was always struck by the emotional, even existential, impact of my new perspective. Trees were dwarfed, trucks crawled and people looked like specks of lint across a vast, textured blanket.

Everything appeared so small as to seem inconsequential, which seemed to indicate that—from a certain height, vantage point and powers of ten—my problems and I were too. Perhaps this thought should have been panic inducing, but I found it comforting. Regardless of the emotion conjured up, the point is that changing my view prompted questions about my place in the universe.

The beauty of watching Powers of Ten is that the film transports viewers well beyond 10+03 feet above ground. Within a span of nine minutes, it zooms out to the farthest edge of the known universe and reels in to the inner depths of a carbon atom. I consider the vast array of perspectives an elegant reminder to remove my blinders and view the world from more than one lens. This might mean taking a step forward or a step back, looking from behind or even flipping the problem on its metaphorical head. Charles and Ray’s film offers many lessons, but one of the biggest is that, in reframing the the problem, new solutions inevitably emerge.

U.S. Naval Academy Day

The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in Annapolis, Maryland, United States. Established October 10th 1845 under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second-oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay, 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore, Maryland. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1834 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis.

Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Member of Congress. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,300 "plebes" (an abbreviation of the Ancient Roman word plebeian) enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer, but only about 1,000 Midshipmen graduate. Graduates are usually commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can also be commissioned as officers in other US services, and the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, and mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept.

Universal Music Day

No matter where you live, there is one language that is universal - music. It's Universal Music Day, an annual "holiday" observed each year on the second Saturday in October. Whether you prefer classical, country, jazz, rock or rap, Universal Music Day celebrates music of all genres.

Universal Music Day educates people about the power and importance of Music-making. It acts as a spark to ignite, encourage, and inspire people to take an active role in their own lives to Love their MUSIC and themselves, to create a life that enriches and creates compassionate communities. It’s about what Alfred Adler referred to as a spirit of belonging to this human family, self-esteem and social interest – all of which begins by claiming one’s own breathe, heart song and Music-making.

These tools and attributes, especially during challenging times of uncertainty and transition offer wonderful opportunities. These tools can help people effectively deal with many personal, national and world problems with the active involvement of all the world’s citizens. Active involvement will grow by each one of us claiming our own breathe, voice, music-making and Fun!

Author, speaker/consultant, Susan Golden, founded the event back in 2007 to encourage people around the world to "experience creativity, movement, healing and joy through sound, rhythm and melody." While Music Day should certainly be celebrated every single day of the year, Universal Music Day "brings the world together to make music from our hearts and create a world of peace, love, justice and joy."

Whether you are a classically trained musician, a talented singer with perfect pitch, a creative songwriter or someone who just enjoys listening to classic hits, music touches people's hearts and souls in such a profound way.

In honor of Universal Music Day, get ready to tap your toes and snap your fingers, and tune in or turn on your favorite tunes today. It's time to raise the roof and make some music!

World Day Against the Death Penalty

13th Annual World Day Against the Death Penalty

Every year on October 10, people around the world rally to the cause of ending capital punishment. This year, the theme of World Day is "The Death Penalty Does Not Stop Drug Crimes."

In spite of a marked global movement away from the death penalty, so far in 2015 we've seen an alarming number of executions for drug-related offenses. Whereas around 75% of the world's countries have abolished the death penalty in law or in practice, there are 33 that retain the option to execute people for drug use or trafficking, and 13 have actually done so in the last 5 years. This particularly the case in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East. (Although the US Supreme Court ruled in Kennedy v. Louisiana that executions are unconstitutional for crimes in which a victim was not killed, it did not bar the death penalty for crimes against the state. Theoretically, this means that drug trafficking could be considered a death-penalty offense, but it would be unprecedented.)

Perhaps the most notorious incident this year was the execution of 8 of the so-called Bali 9 by the Indonesian government. It led to a worldwide movement to spare their lives, with Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott, legendary boxer Manny Pacquiao, and Virgin Group founder Richard Branson condemning the killings along with hundreds of thousands of other people around the world.

Reflecting on the executions, Branson wrote, "I hope some good will come out of these tragic events, as more and more people realize inhumane death penalty laws must end globally, now. [P]ublic disgust for the death penalty grows and hope increases that an end to the death penalty is in sight."

With these and other drug-related executions this year, it seems fitting that we turn our attention to this disturbing international aberration. Similar to a debunked, yet common, argument heard in the United States, the death penalty is said to be a deterrent to both drug abuse and drug trafficking in retentionist nations. As is the case with other crimes, there is no credible evidence to show that executions yield public safety benefits by decreasing drug abuse and importation. For example, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime reported that drug use remained fairly stable in countries that retain the death penalty for such offenses. Moreover, most of the people killed during this time frame were convicted for using cannabis, a drug that is relatively harmless when compared to others (including tobacco and alcohol), undermining the supposed "public health" interests retentionist governments cite to justify killing their own citizens and residents. The death penalty simply cannot solve the societal problems that lead people down the path toward serious drug abuse.

It is also argued that the death penalty is needed to prevent the illegal importation of drugs. That was, after all, the offense for which the Bali 9 were convicted. Many point to Singapore as an example of how such brutal and draconian polices do not even meet their own objectives, let alone live up to international human rights standards. Despite hanging hundreds of people, imports remain at record levels. Like drug abuse, the problem of drug trafficking will not be solved by executing people.

With all of that in mind, the World Coalition Against the Death Penalty is advocating for common-sense replacements for killing people in response to drug offenses:
  • "Demand-reduction and harm-reduction programmes (prevention, treatment, education)."
  • "Supply-reduction interventions (drug interdiction, dismantlement of drug trafficking organizations,  alternative development programmes, eradication, control of precursor chemicals)"
  • "Efforts to control illicit financial controls"
For more information about how to join in this year's global advocacy day against the executions for drug crimes, visit the World Coalition's World Day 2015 page.

World Homeless Day

World Homeless Day is an annual event on the 10th of October.

The concept of 'World Homeless Day' emerged from online discussions between people working to respond to homelessness from various parts of the world.

The Inaugural World Homeless Day was marked on the 10th of October 2010.

Since its founding, World Homeless Day has been observed on every continent except Antarctica, in several dozen countries.

Use of the idea of 'World Homeless Day' is open for all to use... anywhere in the world.

The purpose of World Homeless Day is to draw attention to homeless people’s needs locally and provide opportunities for the community to get involved in responding to homelessness, while taking advantage of the stage an ‘international day’ provides.

How To Make a Difference:
  • educate people about homeless issues
  • celebrate and support local good works
  • highlight local issues
Once you identify the local service provider for homeless people you want to rally support behind.... for example if they suggest clean socks; or canned food; or an item they need funds to buy.... use your local networks to rally even greater support:
  • schools
  • churches
  • service clubs
  • local businesses
  • where you work
  • who else?
World Homeless Day is something you can point to on the calendar each year and make a significant difference in your local community.

Suggestions for Politicians:
  • Acknowledge World Homeless Day officially
  • Point out the good works of service providers
  • Release new funds each year on the date
  • Form an advisory group on homelessness
World Hospice and Palliative Care Day

On 11 October 2014 it will be World Hospice and Palliative Care Day. Each year the day is organised by the World Hospice and Palliative Care Alliance.

The theme for this year's event is 'Who Cares?  We Do!'.  There are lots of materials available for you to download at the official website.  This will ensure that you can get planning for your local event to raise awareness and funds to support hospice and palliative care.

The aim of these kinds of care is to focus on the needs of both the patients and carers, and if like me you have ever known someone with a long-term illness, you will understand how important their care can be.

At the official website, you can find out all about the day and how you can get involved to help make a difference.

You could help the hospices by holding a Voices for Hospice event, which can be anything, from a poetry recital to a concert. Craft fairs, sponsored walks and raffles are also popular ways of raising money for this great cause. You could even hold an open day at your local hospice to show people the great work their donations are doing.

No matter what you do, you'll be raising awareness and funds for people with life-limiting illnesses and their families, so do your bit and get involved with World Hospice and Palliative Care Day.

World Mental Health Day

World Mental Health Day is observed on 10 October every year, with the overall objective of raising awareness of mental health issues around the world and mobilizing efforts in support of mental health.

The Day provides an opportunity for all stakeholders working on mental health issues to talk about their work, and what more needs to be done to make mental health care a reality for people worldwide.

The theme for 2014 is “Living with schizophrenia”. The focus of the World Health Organization will be living a healthy life with schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, characterized by profound disruptions in thinking, affecting language, perception, and the sense of self. It often includes psychotic experiences, such as hearing voices or delusions. It can impair functioning through the loss of an acquired capability to earn a livelihood, or the disruption of studies.

Schizophrenia typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. There are effective treatments for schizophrenia and people affected by it can lead a productive life and be integrated in society.

World Porridge Day

World Porridge Day aims to raise awareness of the role that porridge plays at Mary’s Meals projects in Malawi, where a daily mug of maize-based ‘likuni phala’ is an incentive for children to go to school.

This provides them with the nutrition they need to grow, play and also learn with the aim that education will help them escape from a life of poverty

It is a simple and cost effective idea – it costs just £6.15 (about €7.20 or $10) to feed a child in Malawi for a year.

You can support this worthy cause by getting together with family, friends or workmates and hosting your own World Porridge Day fundraising event. Just cook up a steaming pan of good hearty porridge or maybe bake some oatmeal cookies or flapjacks and ask everyone to make a donation, however large or small, to help support Mary’s Meals.

Providing meals in: Malawi, Haiti, Ukraine, Romania, Kenya, Sudan, Philippines, Albania, Bosnia, India, Burma, Thailand, Liberia, Uganda, Zambia and Ecuador.

Throughout the world, hunger blocks poor children from gaining the education that is their most likely escape route out of poverty. Mary’s Meals offers a simple solution to this problem by working with local communities to provide daily meals in school. Where Mary’s Meals is provided to children in a place of education, there is a rise in enrollment, attendance and academic performance.

The charity, which operates its international headquarters from a tin shed in the Argyll area of the Scottish Highlands, has one simple aim: To provide a daily meal in a place of education so chronically poor children are attracted to the classroom where they can gain a basic education that can provide an escape route from poverty.

Mary’s Meals works in 16 of the poorest countries in the world, providing daily school meals for over 500,000 hungry children.